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1.

電子ブック

EB
Ralph Zito
出版情報: Wiley Online Library Online Books , Hoboken : John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010
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Preface
Dedications and Acknowledgements
Introduction / 1:
Comments on Classical Mechanics / 2:
Force / 2.1:
Energy Sources / 2.2:
Conversion and Storage / 3:
Availability of Solar Energy / 3.1:
Conversion Processes / 3.2:
Photovoltaic Conversion Process / 3.2.1:
Thermoelectric Effects: Seebeck and Peltier / 3.2.2:
Multiple P-N Cell Structure Shown with Heat / 3.2.3:
Early Examples of Thermoelectric Generators / 3.2.4:
Thermionic Converter / 3.2.5:
Thermogalvanic Conversion / 3.2.6:
Storage Processes / 3.3:
Redox Full-Flow Electrolyte Systems / 3.3.1:
Full Flow and Static Electrolyte System Comparisons / 3.3.2:
Practical Purposes of Energy Storage / 4:
The Need for Storage / 4.1:
The Need for Secondary Energy Systems / 4.2:
Comparisons and Background Information / 4.2.1:
Sizing Power Requirements of Familiar Activities / 4.3:
Examples of Directly Available Human Manual Power Mechanically Unaided / 4.3.1:
Arm Throwing / 4.3.1.1:
Vehicle Propulsion by Human Powered Leg Muscles / 4.3.1.2:
Mechanical Storage: Archer's Bow and Arrow / 4.3.1.3:
On-the-road Vehicles / 4.4:
Land Vehicle Propulsion Requirements Summary / 4.4.1:
Rocket Propulsion Energy Needs Comparison / 4.5:
Competing Storage Methods / 5:
Problems with Batteries / 5.1:
Hydrocarbon Fuel: Energy Density Data / 5.2:
Electrochemical Cells / 5.3:
Metal-Halogen and Half-Redox Couples / 5.4:
Full Redox Couples / 5.5:
Possible Applications / 5.6:
The Concentration Cell / 6:
Colligative Properties of Matter / 6.1:
Electrochemical Application of Colligative Properties / 6.2:
Compressed Gas / 6.2.1:
Osmosis / 6.2.2:
Electrostatic Capacitor / 6.2.3:
Concentration Cells: CIR (Common Ion Redox) / 6.2.4:
Further Discussions on Fundamental Issues / 6.3:
Adsorption and Diffusion Rate Balance / 6.4:
Storage by Adsorption and Solids Precipitation / 6.5:
Some Interesting Aspects of Concentration Cells / 6.6:
Concentration Cell Storage Mechanisms that Employ Sulfur / 6.7:
Species Balance / 6.8:
Electrode Surface Potentials / 6.9:
Further Examination of Concentration Ratios / 6.10:
Empirical Results with Small Laboratory Cells / 6.11:
Iron/Iron Concentration Cell Properties / 6.12:
The Mechanisms of Energy Storage Cells / 6.13:
Operational Models of Sulfide Based Cells / 6.14:
Storage Solely in Bulk Electrolyte / 6.15:
More on Storage of Reagents in Adsorbed State / 6.16:
Energy Density / 6.17:
Observations Regarding Electrical Behavior / 6.18:
Concluding Comments / 6.19:
Typical Performance Characteristics / 6.20:
Sulfide/Sulfur Half Cell Balance / 6.21:
General Cell Attributes / 6.22:
Electrolyte Information / 6.23:
Concentration Cell Mechanism and Associated Mathematics / 6.24:
Calculated Performance Data / 6.25:
Another S/S-2 Cell Balance Analysis Method / 6.26:
A Different Example of a Concentration Cell, Fe+2/Fe+3 / 6.27:
Performance Calculations Based on Nernst Potentials / 6.28:
Constant Current Discharge / 6.28.1:
Constant Power Discharge / 6.28.2:
Empirical Data / 6.29:
Thermodynamics of Concentration Cells / 7:
Thermodynamic Background / 7.1:
The CIR Cell / 7.2:
Polysulfide - Diffusion Analysis / 8:
Polarization Voltages and Thermodynamics / 8.1:
Diffusion and Transport Processes at the (-) Electrode Surface / 8.2:
Electrode Surface Properties, Holes, and Pores / 8.3:
Electric (Ionic) Current Density Estimates / 8.4:
Diffusion and Supply of Reagents / 8.5:
Cell Dynamics / 8.6:
Electrode Processes Analyses / 8.6.1:
Polymeric Number Change / 8.6.2:
Further Analysis of Electrode Behavior / 8.7:
Flat Electrode with Some Storage Properties / 8.7.1:
Assessing the Values of Reagent Concentrations / 8.8:
Solving the Differential Equations / 8.9:
Cell and Negative Electrode Performance Analysis / 8.10:
General Comments / 8.11:
Design Considerations / 9:
Examination of Diffusion and Reaction Rates and Cell Design / 9.1:
Electrodes / 9.2:
Physical Spacing in Cell Designs / 9.3:
Electrode Structures / 9.3.1:
Carbon-Polymer Composite Electrodes / 9.4:
Particle Shapes and Sizes / 9.4.1:
Metal to Carbon Resistance / 9.4.2:
Cell Spacing / 9.4.3:
Resistance Measurements in Test Cells / 9.5:
Electrolytes and Membranes / 9.6:
Energy and Power Density Compromises / 9.7:
Overcharging Effects on Cells / 9.8:
Imbalance Considerations / 9.9:
Calculated Cell Performance Data / 10:
Electrical Performance Modeling / 10.1:
Single Cell Empirical Data / 11:
Design and Construction of Cells and the Materials Employed / 11.1:
Experimental Data / 11.2:
Conclusion: Problems and Solutions / 12:
Pros and Cons of Concentration Cells / 12.1:
Future Performance and Limitations / 12.2:
A History of Batteries / Appendix 1:
A History of the Battery / A1.1:
The Electric Car and the Power Source Search / A1.2:
The Initial Survey / A1.3:
Review of a Research Path for a Long-life, High ED Battery / A1.4:
Aids and Supplemental Material / Appendix 2:
Properties of Homogeneous Membranes / A2.1:
Diffusion Tests / A2.1.1:
The van der Waals Equation and its Relevance to Concentration Cells / A2.2:
Derivation of Electrolyte Interconnectivity Losses / A2.3:
Efficiency Calculations / A2.4:
Specific Resistivity and Specific Gravity of Some Reagents / A2.5:
Bibliography
Index
Preface
Dedications and Acknowledgements
Introduction / 1:
2.

電子ブック

EB
Ronald DiPippo
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Butterworth-Heinemann, 2013
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Foreword to the Third Edition
Preface and Acknowledgements to the Third Edition
Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition
Preface and Acknowledgements to the First Edition
Resource Identification and Development / Part 1:
Geology of Geothermal Regions / 1:
Introduction / 1.1:
The Earth and its atmosphere / 1.2:
Active geothermal regions / 1.3:
Model of a hydro thermal geothermal resource / 1.4:
Other types of geothermal resources / 1.5:
References
Problems
Exploration Strategies and Techniques / 2:
Objectives of an exploration program / 2.1:
Phases of an exploration program / 2.3:
Synthesis and interpretation / 2.4:
The next step: Drilling / 2.5:
Geothermal Well Drilling / 3:
Site preparation and drilling equipment / 3.1:
Drilling operations / 3.3:
Safety precautions / 3.4:
Reservoir Engineering / 4:
Reservoir and well flow / 4.1:
Well testing / 4.3:
Calcite scaling in well casings / 4.4:
Reservoir modeling and simulation / 4.5:
Geothermal Power Generating Systems / Part 2:
Single-Flash Steam Power Plants / 5:
Gathering system design considerations / 5.1:
Energy conversion system / 5.3:
Thermodynamics of the conversion process / 5.4:
Example: Single-flash optimization / 5.5:
Optimum separator temperature: An approximate formulation / 5.6:
Environmental aspects for single-flash plants / 5.7:
Equipment list for single-flash plants / 5.8:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 5
Double-Flash Steam Power Plants / 6:
Example: Double-flash optimization / 6.1:
Scale potential in waste brine / 6.6:
Environmental aspects for double-flash plants / 6.7:
Equipment list for double-flash plants / 6.8:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 6
Dry-Steam Power Plants / 7:
Origins and nature of dry-steam resources / 7.1:
Steam gathering system / 7.3:
Example: Optimum wellhead pressure / 7.4:
Environmental aspects of dry-steam plants / 7.6:
Equipment list for dry-steam plants / 7.7:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 7
Binary Cycle Power Plants / 8:
Basic binary systems / 8.1:
Working fluid selection / 8.3:
Advanced binary cycles / 8.4:
Example of binary cycle analysis / 8.5:
Environmental impact of binary cycles / 8.6:
Equipment list for basic binary plants / 8.7:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 8
Advanced Geothermal Energy Conversion Systems / 9:
Hybrid single-flash and double-flash systems / 9.1:
Hybrid flash-binary systems / 9.3:
Example: Integrated flash-binary hybrid system / 9.4:
Total-flow systems / 9.5:
Hybrid fossil-geothermal systems / 9.6:
Combined heat and power plants / 9.7:
Power plants for hypersaline brines / 9.8:
Solar-geothermal hybrid plants / 9.9:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 9
Exergy Analysis Applied to Geothermal Power Systems / 10:
First Law for open, steady systems / 10.1:
Second Law for open, steady systems / 10.3:
Exergy / 10.4:
Exergy accounting for open, steady systems / 10.5:
Exergy efficiencies and applications to geothermal plants / 10.6:
Geothermal Power Plant Case Studies / Part 3:
Larderello Dry-Steam Power Plants, Tuscany, Italy / 11:
History of development / 11.1:
Geology and reservoir characteristics / 11.2:
Power plants / 11.3:
Mitigation of environmental impact / 11.4:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 11
The Geysers Dry-Steam Power Plants, Sonoma and Lake Counties, California, USA / 12:
History and early power plants / 12.1:
Geographic and geologic setting / 12.2:
Well drilling
Steam pipeline system
Recharging the reservoir / 12.3:
Toward sustainability / 12.5:
Cerro Prieto Power Station, Baja California Norte, Mexico / 13:
Overview of Mexican geothermal development / 13.1:
Cerro Prieto geographical and geological setting / 13.2:
Cerro Prieto power plants / 13.3:
Expansion of Cerro Prieto and nearby prospects / 13.4:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 13
Hatchobaru Power Station, Oita Prefecture, Kyushu, Japan / 14:
Overview of Japanese geothermal development / 14.1:
Hatchobaru geothermal field / 14.2:
Hatchobaru power units / 14.3:
Conclusion and forecast / 14.4:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 14
Mutnovsky Flash-Steam Power Plant, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia / 15:
Setting, exploration, and early developments / 15.1:
Conceptual model of Mutnovsky geothermal field / 15.2:
Verkhne-Mutnovsky 12 MW power plant / 15.3:
Mutnovsky first-stage 50 MW power plant / 15.4:
Future power units at Mutnovsky / 15.5:
Miravalles Power Station, Guanacaste Province, Costa Rica / 16:
Traveling to Miravalles / 16.1:
History of geothermal development / 16.2:
Wells / 16.3:
Power generation / 16.4:
Calcite inhibition system / 16.5:
Acid neutralization system / 16.6:
Environmental protection and monitoring / 16.7:
Other geothermal power projects / 16.8:
Heber Binary Plants, Imperial Valley, California, USA / 17:
Exploration and discovery / 17.1:
The first Heber binary plant / 17.3:
The second Heber binary plant / 17.4:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 17
Magmamax Binary Power Plant, East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California, USA / 18:
Setting and exploration / 18.1:
Magmamax binary power plant / 18.2:
Modified Magmamax binary power plant / 18.3:
Conclusion / 18.4:
Nesjavellir and Hellisheidi Plants, Iceland / 19:
Geology and geosciences / 19.1:
Nesjavellir power plant / 19.3:
Hellisheidi power plant / 19.4:
Raft River Plants, Idaho, USA / 20:
Original development-DOE pilot plant / 20.1:
New development-U.S. Geothermal plant / 20.4:
Geothermal Power Plants in Turkey / 21:
Geologic setting / 21.1:
Kizildere single-flash plant / 21.2:
Salavath binary plants / 21.3:
Germencik double-flash plant / 21.4:
Environmental impact / 21.5:
Current state and future prospects of geothermal power / 21.6:
Nomenclature for figures in Chapter 21
Enhanced Geothermal Systems-Projects and Plants / 22:
Definitions / 22.1:
Early projects / 22.2:
Later projects / 22.3:
EGS power plants / 22.4:
Proposed projects / 22.5:
Environmental Impact of Geothermal Power Plants / 23:
Overview / 23.1:
Regulations / 23.2:
General impacts of electricity generation / 23.3:
Environmental advantages of geothermal plants / 23.4:
Environmental challenges of geothermal plants / 23.5:
Summary / 23.6:
Appendices
Worldwide State of Geothermal Power Plant Development as of August 2011 / Appendix A:
Units Conversions / Appendix B:
Energy Equivalents / Appendix C:
Elements of Thermodynamics / Appendix D:
Answers to Selected Practice Problems / Appendix E:
Supplementary Problems / Appendix F:
Answers to Selected Supplementary Problems / Appendix G:
REFPROP Tutorial with Application to Geothermal Binary Cycles / Appendix H:
Index
Foreword to the Third Edition
Preface and Acknowledgements to the Third Edition
Preface and Acknowledgements to the Second Edition
3.

電子ブック

EB
Raymond LeRoy Murray, Raymond L. Murray
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Butterworth-Heinemann, 2009
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Basic Concepts / Part I:
Energy / 1:
Atoms and Nuclei / 2:
Radioactivity / 3:
Nuclear Processes / 4:
Radiation and Materials / 5:
Fission / 6:
Fusion / 7:
Nuclear Systems / Part II:
Particle Accelerators / 8:
Isotope Separators / 9:
Radiation Detectors / 10:
Neutron Chain Reactions / 11:
Nuclear Heat Energy / 12:
Breeder Reactors / 13:
Fusion Reactors / 14:
Nuclear Energy and Man / Part III:
The History of Nuclear Energy / 15:
Biological Effects of Radiation / 16:
Information from Isotopes / 17:
Useful Radiation Effects / 18:
Reactor Safety and Security / 19:
Nuclear Propulsion / 20:
Radiation Protection / 21:
Radioactive Waste Disposal / 22:
Laws, Regulations, and Organizations / 23:
Energy Economics / 24:
International Nuclear Power / 25:
Nuclear Explosions / 26:
The Future / 27:
Appendix
Conversion Factors
Atomic and Nuclear Data
Answers to Exercises
Comments
Computer Programs
Index
Basic Concepts / Part I:
Energy / 1:
Atoms and Nuclei / 2:
4.

電子ブック

EB
Colleen Spiegel
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2008
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Acknowledgments
An Introduction to Fuel Cells / 1:
Introduction / 1.1:
What Is a Fuel Cell? / 1.2:
Why Do We Need Fuel Cells? / 1.3:
History of Fuel Cells / 1.4:
Mathematical Models in the Literature / 1.5:
Creating Mathematical Models / 1.6:
Chapter Summary
Problems
Bibliography
Fuel Cell Thermodynamics / 2:
Enthalpy / 2.1:
Specific Heats / 2.3:
Entropy / 2.4:
Free Energy Change of a Chemical Reaction / 2.5:
Fuel Cell Reversible and Net Output Voltage / 2.6:
Theoretical Fuel Cell Efficiency / 2.7:
Fuel Cell Electrochemistry / 3:
Basic Electrokinetics Concepts / 3.1:
Charge Transfer / 3.3:
Activation Polarization for Charge Transfer Reactions / 3.4:
Electrode Kinetics / 3.5:
Voltage Losses / 3.6:
Internal Currents and Crossover Currents / 3.7:
Fuel Cell Charge Transport / 4:
Voltage Loss Due to Charge Transport / 4.1:
Electron Conductivity of Metals / 4.3:
Ionic Conductivity of Polymer Electrolytes / 4.4:
Fuel Cell Mass Transport / 5:
Fuel Cell Mass Balances / 5.1:
Convective Mass Transport from Flow Channels to Electrode / 5.3:
Diffusive Mass Transport in Electrodes / 5.4:
Convective Mass Transport in Flow Field Plates / 5.5:
Mass Transport Equations in the Literature / 5.6:
Heat Transfer / 6:
Basics of Heat Transfer / 6.1:
Fuel Cell Energy Balances / 6.3:
Fuel Cell Heat Management / 6.4:
Modeling the Proton Exchange Structure / 7:
Physical Description of the Proton Exchange Membrane / 7.1:
Types of Models / 7.3:
Proton Exchange Membrane Modeling Example / 7.4:
Modeling the Gas Diffusion Layers / 8:
Physical Description of the Gas Diffusion Layer / 8.1:
Basics of Modeling Porous Media / 8.3:
Modes of Transport in Porous Media / 8.4:
GDL Modeling Example / 8.5:
Modeling the Catalyst Layers / 9:
Physical Description of the PEM Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers / 9.1:
General Equations / 9.3:
Heat Transport in the Catalyst Layers / 9.4:
Modeling the Flow Field Plates / 10:
Flow Field Plate Materials / 10.1:
Flow Field Design / 10.3:
Channel Shape, Dimensions, and Spacing / 10.4:
Pressure Drop in Flow Channels / 10.5:
Heat Transfer from the Plate Channels to the Gas / 10.6:
Modeling Micro Fuel Cells / 11:
Micro PEM Fuel Cells in the Literature / 11.1:
Microfluidics / 11.3:
Flow Rates and Pressures / 11.4:
Bubbles and Particles / 11.5:
Capillary Effects / 11.6:
Single- and Two-Phase Pressure Drop / 11.7:
Velocity in Microchannels / 11.8:
Modeling Fuel Cell Stacks / 12:
Fuel Cell Stack Sizing / 12.1:
Number of Cells / 12.3:
Stack Configuration / 12.4:
Distribution of Fuel and Oxidants to the Cells / 12.5:
Stack Clamping / 12.6:
Fuel Cell System Design / 13:
Fuel Subsystem / 13.1:
Model Validation / 14:
Residuals / 14.1:
Normal Distribution of Normal Random Errors / 14.3:
Missing Terms in the Functional Part of the Model / 14.4:
Unnecessary Terms in the Model / 14.5:
Appendix A
Appendix B
Appendix C
Appendix D
Appendix E
Appendix F
Appendix G
Appendix H
Appendix I
Appendix J
Index
Acknowledgments
An Introduction to Fuel Cells / 1:
Introduction / 1.1:
5.

電子ブック

EB
Bent Sorensen
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2007
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Preface
Contents
Units and Conversion factors
Introduction / Chapter 1:
General principles / I:
Basic principles of energy conversion / Chapter 2:
Thermodynamic engine cycles / Chapter 3:
Heat energy conversion processes / II:
Direct thermoelectric conversion / Chapter 4:
Engine conversion of solar energy / Chapter 5:
Heat pumps / Chapter 6:
Geothermal and ocean-thermal energy conversion / Chapter 7:
Mechanical energy conversion processes / III:
Basic description of flow-driven converters / Chapter 8:
Propeller-type converters / Chapter 9:
Cross-wind and other alternative converter concepts / Chapter 10:
Hydro and tidal energy conversion / Chapter 11:
Magneto hydrodynamic converters / Chapter 12:
Wave energy converters / Chapter 13:
Solar radiation conversion processes / IV:
Photovoltaic conversion / Chapter 14:
Photo-electrochemical conversion / Chapter 15:
Solar thermal conversion / Chapter 16:
Solar thermal electricity generators / Chapter 17:
Solar cooling and other applications / Chapter 18:
Electrochemical energy conversion processes / V:
Fuel cells / Chapter 19:
Other electrochemical energy conversion / Chapter 20:
Bioenergy conversion processes / VI:
Combustion / Chapter 21:
Biological conversion into gaseous fuels / Chapter 22:
Biological conversion into liquid fuels / Chapter 23:
Thermochemical conversion to gaseous and other fuels / Chapter 24:
Energy Transmission / VII:
Heat transmission / Chapter 25:
Power transmission / Chapter 26:
Fuel transmission / Chapter 27:
Heat storage / VIII:
Heat capacity storage / Chapter 28:
Latent heat and chemical transformation storage / Chapter 29:
High-quality energy storage / IX:
Pumped hydro storage / Chapter 30:
Flywheels / Chapter 31:
Compressed gas storage / Chapter 32:
Battery storage / Chapter 33:
Other storage forms / Chapter 34:
Mini-projects and exercises
References
Index
Preface
Contents
Units and Conversion factors
6.

電子ブック

EB
Soteris Kalogirou
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2009
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Introduction / Chapter 1:
Environmental Characteristics / Chapter 2:
Solar Energy Collectors / Chapter 3:
Performance of Solar Collectors / Chapter 4:
Solar Water Heating Systems / Chapter 5:
Solar Space Heating And Cooling / Chapter 6:
Industrial Process Heat / Chapter 7:
Solar Desalination Systems / Chapter 8:
Photovoltaic Systems / Chapter 9:
Solar Thermal Power Systems / Chapter 10:
Modelling Of Solar Systems / Chapter 11:
Economics Glossary of Terms References / Chapter 12:
Introduction / Chapter 1:
Environmental Characteristics / Chapter 2:
Solar Energy Collectors / Chapter 3:
7.

電子ブック

EB
S. J. Fonash
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2010
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Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Symbols
List of Abbreviations
Introduction / 1:
Photovoltaic Energy Conversion / 1.1:
Solar Cells and Solar Energy Conversion / 1.2:
Solar Cell Applications / 1.3:
References
Material Properties and Device Physics Basic to Photovoltaics / 2:
Material Properties / 2.1:
Structure of solids / 2.2.1:
Phonon spectra of solids / 2.2.2:
Electron energy levels in solids / 2.2.3:
Optical phenomena in solids / 2.2.4:
Carrier recombination and trapping / 2.2.5:
Photocarrier generation / 2.2.6:
Transport / 2.3:
Transport processes in bulk solids / 2.3.1:
Transport processes at interfaces / 2.3.2:
Continuity concept / 2.3.3:
Electrostatics / 2.3.4:
The Mathematical System / 2.4:
Origins of Photovoltaic Action / 2.5:
Structures, Materials, and Scale / 3:
Basic Structures for Photovoltaic Action / 3.1:
General comments on band diagrams / 3.2.1:
Photovoltaic action arising from built-in electrostatic fields / 3.2.2:
Photovoltaic action arising from diffusion / 3.2.3:
Photovoltaic action arising from effective fields / 3.2.4:
Summary of practical structures / 3.2.5:
Key Materials / 3.3:
Absorber materials / 3.3.1:
Contact materials / 3.3.2:
Length Scale Effects for Materials and Structures / 3.4:
The role of scale in absorption and collection / 3.4.1:
Using the nano-scale to capture lost energy / 3.4.2:
The role of scale in light management / 3.4.3:
Homojunction Solar Cells / 4:
Overview of Homojunction Solar Cell Device Physics / 4.1:
The homojunction barrier region / 4.2.1:
Analysis of Homojunction Device Physics: Numerical Approach / 4.3:
Basic p-n homojunction / 4.3.1:
Addition of a front HT-EBL / 4.3.2:
Addition of a front HT-EBL and back ET-HBL / 4.3.3:
Addition of a front high-low junction / 4.3.4:
A p-i-n cell with a front HT-EBL and back ET-HBL / 4.3.5:
A p-i-n cell using a poor ?? absorber / 4.3.6:
Analysis of Homojunction Device Physics: Analytical Approach / 4.4:
Some Homojunction Configurations / 4.4.1:
Semiconductor-semiconductor Heterojunction Cells / 5:
Overview of Heterojunction Solar Cell Device Physics / 5.1:
The heterojunction barrier region / 5.2.1:
Analysis of Heterojunction Device Physics: Numerical Approach / 5.3:
Absorption by free electron-hole pair excitations / 5.3.1:
Absorption by exciton generation / 5.3.2:
Analysis of Heterojunction Device Physics: Analytical Approach / 5.4:
Absorption by free electron-hole excitations / 5.4.1:
Absorption by excitons / 5.4.2:
Some Heterojunction Configurations / 5.5:
Surface-barrier Solar Cells / 6:
Overview of Surface-barrier Solar Cell Device Physics / 6.1:
The surface-barrier region / 6.2.1:
Analysis of Surface-barrier Device Physics: Numerical Approach / 6.3:
Analysis of Surface-barrier Device Physics: Analytical Approach / 6.4:
Some Surface-barrier Configurations / 6.5:
Dye-sensitized Solar Cells / 7:
Overview of Dye-sensitized Solar Cell Device Physics / 7.1:
The dye-sensitized solar cell barrier region / 7.2.1:
Analysis of DSSC Device Physics: Numerical Approach / 7.3:
Some DSSC Configurations / 7.4:
The Absorption Coefficient / Appendix A:
Radiative Recombination / Appendix B:
Shockley-Read-Hall (Gap-state-assisted) Recombination / Appendix C:
Conduction- and Valence-band Transport / Appendix D:
The Quasi-neutral-region Assumption and Lifetime Semiconductors / Appendix E:
Determining p(x) and n(x) for the Space-charge-neutral Regions of a Homojunction / Appendix F:
Determining n(x) for the Space-charge-neutral Region of a Heterojunction p-type Bottom Material / Appendix G:
Index
Preface
Acknowledgments
List of Symbols
8.

電子ブック

EB
Prabir Basu
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2010
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Preface
About the Author
Introduction / Chapter 1:
Biomass Characteristics / Chapter 2:
Pyrolysis and Torrefaction / Chapter 3:
Tar Production and Destruction
Gasification Theory and Modeling of Gasifiers / Chapter 5:
Design of Biomass Gasifiers / Chapter 6:
Hydrothermal Gasification of Biomass / Chapter 7:
Biomass Handling
Production of Synthetic Fuels and Chemicals from Biomass / Chapter 9:
Definition of Biomass / Appendix A:
Physical Constants / Appendix B:
Selected Design Data Tables / Appendix C:
Glossary
References
Index
Preface
About the Author
Introduction / Chapter 1:
9.

電子ブック

EB
Augustin McEvoy, Luis Castaner, Luis Castaäner, Luis Castaäner, T. Markvart, Tom Markvart, Augustin Joseph McEvoy
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2012
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Solar Radiation
Solar Cells Introduction
c-Si
Thin Films
Organic and Dye Sensitised Cells
Space and Concentrators
Systems
Case Studies
Testing, Monitoring and Calibration
Economics, Environment and Business Strategy
Solar Radiation
Solar Cells Introduction
c-Si
10.

電子ブック

EB
Frano Barbir
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Academic Press, 2013
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Foreword
Preface and acknowledgments
Preface to the Second Edition
Introduction / 1:
What Is a Fuel Cell? / 1.1:
A Very Brief History of Fuel Cells / 1.2:
Types of Fuel Cells / 1.3:
How Does a PEM Fuel Cell Work? / 1.4:
Why Do We Need Fuel Cells? / 1.5:
Fuel Cell Applications / 1.6:
References
Fuel Cell Basic Chemistry and Thermodynamics / 2:
Basic Reactions / 2.1:
Heat of Reaction / 2.2:
Higher and Lower Heating Value of Hydrogen / 2.3:
Theoretical Electrical Work / 2.4:
Theoretical Fuel Cell Potential / 2.5:
Effect of Temperature / 2.6:
Theoretical Fuel Cell Efficiency / 2.7:
Carnot Efficiency Myth / 2.8:
Effect of Pressure / 2.9:
Summary / 2.10:
Problems
Quiz
Fuel Cell Electrochemistry / 3:
Electrode Kinetics / 3.1:
Voltage Losses / 3.2:
Cell Potential: Polarization Curve / 3.3:
Distribution of Potential Across a Fuel Cell / 3.4:
Sensitivity of Parameters in Polarization Curve / 3.5:
Fuel Cell Efficiency / 3.6:
Implications and Use of Fuel Cell Polarization Curve / 3.7:
Solution
Main Cell Components, Material Properties, and Processes / 4:
Cell Description / 4.1:
Membrane / 4.2:
Electrodes / 4.3:
Gas Diffusion Layer / 4.4:
Bipolar Plates / 4.5:
Fuel Cell Operating Conditions / 5:
Operating Pressure / 5.1:
Operating Temperature / 5.2:
Reactant Flow Rates / 5.3:
Reactant Humidity / 5.4:
Fuel Cell Mass Balance / 5.5:
Fuel Cell Energy Balance / 5.6:
Stack Design / 6:
Sizing a Fuel Cell Stack / 6.1:
Stack Configuration / 6.2:
Uniform Distribution of Reactants to Each Cell / 6.3:
Uniform Distribution of Reactants Inside Each Cell / 6.4:
Heat Removal from a Fuel Cell Stack / 6.5:
Stack Clamping / 6.6:
Fuel Cell Modeling / 7:
Theory and Governing Equations / 7.1:
Modeling Domains / 7.2:
Modeling Examples / 7.3:
Conclusions / 7.4:
Fuel Cell Diagnostics / 8:
Electrochemical Techniques / 8.1:
Physical and Chemical Methods / 8.2:
Fuel Cell System Design / 8.3:
Hydrogen/Oxygen Systems / 9.1:
Hydrogen/Air Systems / 9.2:
Fuel Cell Systems with Fuel Processors / 9.3:
Electrical Subsystem / 9.4:
System Efficiency / 9.5:
Transportation Applications / 10:
Stationary Power / 10.2:
Backup Power / 10.3:
Fuel Cells for Small Portable Power / 10.4:
Regenerative Fuel Cells and Their Applications / 10.5:
Durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells / 11:
Scope and Organization of This Chapter / 11.1:
Types of Performance Losses / 11.3:
PEFC Components Associated with Different Types of Losses / 11.4:
Operating Conditions / 11.5:
Accelerated Test Protocols / 11.6:
Conclusions and Future Outlook / 11.7:
Acknowledgments
Future of Fuel Cells and Hydrogen / 12:
A Brief History of Hydrogen as a Fuel / 12.1:
Hydrogen Energy Technologies / 12.3:
Is the Present Global Energy System Sustainable? / 12.4:
Predicting the Future / 12.5:
Sustainable Energy System of the Future / 12.6:
Transition to Hydrogen or a "Hydricity Economy" / 12.7:
The Coming Energy Revolution? / 12.8:
Index / 12.9:
Foreword
Preface and acknowledgments
Preface to the Second Edition
11.

電子ブック

EB
Nasir El Bassam, Preben Maegaard, Marcia Lawton Schlichting, N. El Bassam
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Elsevier, 2013
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Preface
List of Figures
List of Tables
Scope of the Book / 1:
Distributed Energy Generation / 1.1:
Distributed Energy Supply / 1.2:
Community Power / 1.3:
Off-Grid Systems / 1.4:
References
Restructuring Future Energy Generation and Supply / 2:
Basic Challenges / 2.1:
Current Energy Supplies / 2.2:
Peak Oil / 2.3:
Availability of Alternative Resources / 2.4:
Road Map of Distributed Renewable Energy Communities / 3:
Energy and Sustainable Development / 3.1:
Community Involvement / 3.2:
Facing the Challenges / 3.3:
The Concept of FAO, UN Integrated Energy Communities (IEC) / 3.4:
Global Approach / 3.5:
Basic Elements of Energy Demand / 3.5.1:
Basic and Extended Needs / 3.6:
Typical Electricity Demands / 3.7:
Single and Multiple-Phase Island Grid / 3.8:
Version 1: Single-Phase Island Grid / 3.8.1:
Version 2: Three-Phase Island Grid / 3.8.2:
Version 3: Three-Phase Island Grid and Parallel Operation of the Sunny Island Inverter / 3.8.3:
The System Solution for Island Grids / 3.8.4:
Regional Implementation / 3.9:
Further Reading
Planning of Integrated Renewable Communities / 4:
Scenario 1 / 4.1:
Scenario 2 / 4.2:
Case Study I: Implementation of IEF Under Climatic Conditions of Central Europe / 4.3:
Specifications / 4.3.1:
Distribution of the Farm Area / 4.3.2:
Farm Production / 4.3.3:
Energy Requirement / 4.3.4:
Case Study II: Arid and Semi-arid Regions / 4.4:
Reference / 4.4.1:
Determination of Community Energy and Food Requirements / 5:
Modeling Approaches / 5.1:
Scenario 1 (Figure 5.1) / 5.1.1:
Scenario 2 (Figure 5.2) / 5.1.2:
Data Acquisition / 5.2:
Determination of Energy and Food Requirements / 5.3:
Agricultural Activities / 5.3.1:
Households / 5.3.2:
Food Requirement / 5.3.3:
Energy Potential Analysis / 5.4:
Solar Energy / 5.4.1:
Exploitation of Solar Energy / 5.4.2:
Solar Thermal System / 5.4.3:
Solar Photovoltaic / 5.4.4:
Data Collection and Processing for Energy Utilization / 5.5:
Water and Space Heating / 5.5.1:
Drying of Agricultural Produce / 5.5.2:
Wind Energy / 5.6:
Biomass / 5.7:
Energetic Use of Biomass / 5.7.1:
Biogas Production / 5.7.2:
Energy Basics, Resources, Global Contribution and Applications / 6:
Basics of Energy / 6.1:
Energy Rating / 6.1.1:
Energy Consumption / 6.1.2:
Energy Generation / 6.1.3:
Global Contribution / 6.2:
Resources and Applications / 6.3:
Photovoltaic / 7:
Applications / 7.1.2:
Concentrating Solar Thermal Power (CSP) / 7.2:
Solar Thermal Collectors / 7.3:
Solar Cookers and Solar Ovens / 7.4:
Global Market / 8:
Types of Wind Turbines / 8.2:
Horizontal-axis Wind Turbines / 8.2.1:
Vertical-axis Design / 8.2.2:
Small Wind Turbines / 8.3:
Google Superhighway, USA / 8.4:
Biomass and Bioenergy / 9:
Characteristics and Potentials / 9.1:
Solid Biofuels / 9.2:
Charcoal / 9.3:
Briquettes / 9.4:
Pellets / 9.5:
Biogas / 9.6:
Ethanol / 9.7:
Bio-oils / 9.8:
Conversion Systems to Heat, Power and Electricity / 9.9:
Combined Heat and Power (CHP) / 9.10:
Heat / 9.10.1:
Electricity / 9.10.2:
Steam Technology / 9.11:
Gasification / 9.12:
Biomass Stoves / 9.12.1:
Pyrolysis / 9.13:
Methanol / 9.14:
Synthetic Oil / 9.15:
Fuel Cells / 9.16:
The Stirling Engine / 9.17:
Algae / 9.18:
Algae Bioreactors / 9.18.1:
Hydrogen / 9.19:
Hydropower / 10:
Hydroelectricity / 10.1:
Microhydropower Systems / 10.2:
System Components / 10.2.1:
Turbine Types / 10.3:
Potential for Rural Development / 10.4:
Marine Energy / 11:
Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion / 11.1:
Technologies / 11.2:
Closed-cycle / 11.2.1:
Open-cycle / 11.2.2:
Hybrid / 11.2.3:
Advantages and Benefits of OTEC Technology / 11.2.4:
Ocean Tidal Power / 11.3:
Ocean Wave Power / 11.4:
Offshore Systems / 11.4.1:
Onshore Systems / 11.4.2:
Environmental and Economic Challenges / 11.5:
Geothermal Energy / 12:
Origin of Geothermal Heat / 12.1:
Geothermal Electricity / 12.2:
Types of Geothermal Power Plants / 12.3:
Energy Storage, Smart Grids and Electric Vehicles / 13:
Energy Storage / 13.1:
Storage Methods / 13.1.1:
Technologies for Up-and Down-Regulation / 13.1.2:
Smart Grids / 13.2:
Definition and Importance / 13.2.1:
U.S. Strategy / 13.2.2:
European Strategy / 13.2.3:
Korean Version / 13.2.4:
Electric Vehicles / 13.3:
Current Developments / 13.3.1:
Future Developments / 13.3.2:
Current Distributed Renewable Energy Rural and Urban Communities / 14:
Rural Community Jühnde / 14.1:
The Energy Production Process / 14.1.1:
Wildpoldsried, the 100% Emissions Free Town / 14.2:
Roadmap to Renewable Energy in Remote Communities in Australia / 14.3:
"Iraq Dream" Homes / 14.4:
Danish Distributed Integrated Energy Systems for Communities / 14.5:
The Consequences of Fluctuating Power Supply / 14.5.1:
Hot Water Storage / 14.5.2:
Wind Energy and Its Role in Power Production / 14.5.3:
The Wind Energy Development in Denmark / 14.5.4:
The Ownership Model behind Two Decades of Success / 14.5.5:
CHP and Its General Application / 14.5.6:
Cogeneration Technology / 14.5.7:
Renewables in Africa / 14.6:
Geothermal / 14.6.1:
Wind Power / 14.6.4:
Solar Power / 14.6.5:
Biofuels / 14.6.6:
Energy Efficiency / 14.6.7:
Renewables in India / 14.7:
Distributed Renewable Energy and Solar Oases for Deserts and Arid Regions: DESERTEC Concept / 14.8:
Scientific Background of the Concept / 14.8.1:
Solar Oases / 14.8.2:
The Vatican City / 14.9:
Ownership, Citizens Participation and Economic Trends / 15:
Community Ownership / 15.1:
The Danish Ownership Model / 15.2:
Integration of the Energy Supply by Public Ownership / 15.2.1:
Economic Trends / 15.3:
Glossary / Appendix 1:
Abbreviations and Acronyms / Appendix 2:
Conversion Factors / Appendix 3:
Inventory of PV Systems for Sustainable Rural Development / Appendix 4:
Project "SOLARTECH SUD," Solar Eco-Village Zarzis - Djerba Tunisia / Appendix 5:
Solar Park Vechelde (Kraftfeld Vechelde GmbH & Co. KG) / Appendix 6:
Solar Laundry, Eternal University, Baru Sahib, India / Appendix 7:
Manual and/or Solar Powered Water Treatment System / Appendix 8:
Index
Preface
List of Figures
List of Tables
12.

電子ブック

EB
Donald L. Klass
出版情報: Elsevier ScienceDirect Books Complete , Burlington : Academic Press, 1998
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Preface
Energy Consumption, Reserves, Depletion, Environmental Issues
Biomass as an Energy Resource: Concept and Markets
Photosynthesis of Biomass and Its Conversion-Related Properties
Virgin Biomass Production
Waste Biomass Abundance, Energy Potential, and Availability
Physical Conversion Processes
Thermal Coversion: Combustion
Thermal Conversion: Pyrolysis and Liquefaction
Thermal Converstion: Gasification
Natural Biochemical Liquefaction
Synthetic Oxygenated Liquid Fuels
Microbial Conversion: Gasification
Organic Commodity Chemicals from Biomass
Integrated Biomass Production-Conversion Systems and Net Energy Production
Epilogue
Appendices
Subject Index
Preface
Energy Consumption, Reserves, Depletion, Environmental Issues
Biomass as an Energy Resource: Concept and Markets
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