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1.

図書

図書
Gary Blake and Robert W. Bly
出版情報: New York : Longman, c1993  xvii, 173 p. ; 21 cm
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2.

図書

図書
edited by Helmut Sigel and Astrid Sigel
出版情報: New York : Marcel Dekker, c1993  xxxiv, 448 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: Metal ions in biological systems / edited by Helmut Sigel ; v. 29
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Global bioalkylation of the heavy elements / John S. Thayer
analysis of organometallic compounds in the environment / Darren Mennie ; Peter J. Craig
biogeochemistry of methylgermanium species in natural waters / Brent L. Lewis ; H. Peter Mayer
biological properties of alkyltin compounds / Yasuaki Arakawa ; Osamu Wada
biological properties of alkyl derivatives of lead / Yukio Yamamura ; Fumio Arai
metabolism of alkyl arsenic and antimony compounds / Marie Vahter ; Erminio
Global bioalkylation of the heavy elements / John S. Thayer
analysis of organometallic compounds in the environment / Darren Mennie ; Peter J. Craig
biogeochemistry of methylgermanium species in natural waters / Brent L. Lewis ; H. Peter Mayer
3.

図書

図書
edited by F.T.M. Nieuwstadt
出版情報: Dordrecht ; Boston : Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1993  vii, 271 p. ; 25 cm
シリーズ名: Fluid mechanics and its applications ; v. 14
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4.

図書

図書
V.I. Arnol'd (ed.)
出版情報: Berlin ; Tokyo : Springer-Verlag, c1993  235 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: Encyclopaedia of mathematical sciences / editor-in-chief, R.V. Gamkrelidze ; v. 39 . Dynamical systems ; 8 . Singularity theory ; 2
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目次情報:
Singularity II
Applications / V.I. Arnol'd ; V.V. Goryunov ; O.V. Lyashko ; V.A. Vasil'ev
Singularity II
Applications / V.I. Arnol'd ; V.V. Goryunov ; O.V. Lyashko ; V.A. Vasil'ev
5.

図書

図書
Julius S. Bendat, Allan G. Piersol
出版情報: New York : J. Wiley, c1993  xiv, 458 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: A Wiley-Interscience publication
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6.

図書

図書
François M.M. Morel, Janet G. Hering
出版情報: New York : Wiley, c1993  xv, 588 p. ; 25 cm
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7.

図書

図書
Stephen I. Gallant
出版情報: Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press, c1993  xvi, 365 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: Bradford book
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目次情報: 続きを見る
Foreword
Basics / I:
Introduction and Important Definitions / 1:
Why Connectionist Models? / 1.1:
The Grand Goals of Al and Its Current Impasse / 1.1.1:
The Computational Appeal of Neural Networks / 1.1.2:
The Structure of Connectionist Models / 1.2:
Network Properties / 1.2.1:
Cell Properties / 1.2.2:
Dynamic Properties / 1.2.3:
Learning Properties / 1.2.4:
Two Fundamental Models: Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP's) and Backpropagation Networks (BPN's) / 1.3:
Multilayer Perceptrons (MLP's) / 1.3.1:
Backpropagation Networks (BPN's) / 1.3.2:
Gradient Descent / 1.4:
The Algorithm / 1.4.1:
Practical Problems / 1.4.2:
Comments / 1.4.3:
Historic and Bibliographic Notes / 1.5:
Early Work / 1.5.1:
The Decline of the Perceptron / 1.5.2:
The Rise of Connectionist Research / 1.5.3:
Other Bibliographic Notes / 1.5.4:
Exercises / 1.6:
Programming Project / 1.7:
Representation Issues / 2:
Representing Boolean Functions / 2.1:
Equivalence of {+1, -1,0} and {1,0} Forms / 2.1.1:
Single-Cell Models / 2.1.2:
Nonseparable Functions / 2.1.3:
Representing Arbitrary Boolean Functions / 2.1.4:
Representing Boolean Functions Using Continuous Connectionist Models / 2.1.5:
Distributed Representations / 2.2:
Definition / 2.2.1:
Storage Efficiency and Resistance to Error / 2.2.2:
Superposition / 2.2.3:
Learning / 2.2.4:
Feature Spaces and ISA Relations / 2.3:
Feature Spaces / 2.3.1:
Concept-Function Unification / 2.3.2:
ISA Relations / 2.3.3:
Binding / 2.3.4:
Representing Real-Valued Functions / 2.4:
Approximating Real Numbers by Collections of Discrete Cells / 2.4.1:
Precision / 2.4.2:
Approximating Real Numbers by Collections of Continuous Cells / 2.4.3:
Example: Taxtime! / 2.5:
Programming Projects / 2.6:
Learning In Single-Layer Models / II:
Perceptron Learning and the Pocket Algorithm / 3:
Perceptron Learning for Separable Sets of Training Examples / 3.1:
Statement of the Problem / 3.1.1:
Computing the Bias / 3.1.2:
The Perceptron Learning Algorithm / 3.1.3:
Perceptron Convergence Theorem / 3.1.4:
The Perceptron Cycling Theorem / 3.1.5:
The Pocket Algorithm for Nonseparable Sets of Training Examples / 3.2:
Problem Statement / 3.2.1:
Perceptron Learning Is Poorly Behaved / 3.2.2:
The Pocket Algorithm / 3.2.3:
Ratchets / 3.2.4:
Examples / 3.2.5:
Noisy and Contradictory Sets of Training Examples / 3.2.6:
Rules / 3.2.7:
Implementation Considerations / 3.2.8:
Proof of the Pocket Convergence Theorem / 3.2.9:
Khachiyan's Linear Programming Algorithm / 3.3:
Winner-Take-All Groups or Linear Machines / 3.4:
Generalizes Single-Cell Models / 4.1:
Perceptron Learning for Winner-Take-All Groups / 4.2:
The Pocket Algorithm for Winner-Take-All Groups / 4.3:
Kessler's Construction, Perceptron Cycling, and the Pocket Algorithm Proof / 4.4:
Independent Training / 4.5:
Autoassociators and One-Shot Learning / 4.6:
Linear Autoassociators and the Outer-Product Training Rule / 5.1:
Anderson's BSB Model / 5.2:
Hopfieid's Model / 5.3:
Energy / 5.3.1:
The Traveling Salesman Problem / 5.4:
The Cohen-Grossberg Theorem / 5.5:
Kanerva's Model / 5.6:
Autoassociative Filtering for Feedforward Networks / 5.7:
Concluding Remarks / 5.8:
Mean Squared Error (MSE) Algorithms / 5.9:
Motivation / 6.1:
MSE Approximations / 6.2:
The Widrow-Hoff Rule or LMS Algorithm / 6.3:
Number of Training Examples Required / 6.3.1:
Adaline / 6.4:
Adaptive Noise Cancellation / 6.5:
Decision-Directed Learning / 6.6:
Unsupervised Learning / 6.7:
Introduction / 7.1:
No Teacher / 7.1.1:
Clustering Algorithms / 7.1.2:
k-Means Clustering / 7.2:
Topology-Preserving Maps / 7.2.1:
Example / 7.3.1:
Demonstrations / 7.3.4:
Dimensionality, Neighborhood Size, and Final Comments / 7.3.5:
Art1 / 7.4:
Important Aspects of the Algorithm / 7.4.1:
Art2 / 7.4.2:
Using Clustering Algorithms for Supervised Learning / 7.6:
Labeling Clusters / 7.6.1:
ARTMAP or Supervised ART / 7.6.2:
Learning In Multilayer Models / 7.7:
The Distributed Method and Radial Basis Functions / 8:
Rosenblatt's Approach / 8.1:
The Distributed Method / 8.2:
Cover's Formula / 8.2.1:
Robustness-Preserving Functions / 8.2.2:
Hepatobiliary Data / 8.3:
Artificial Data / 8.3.2:
How Many Cells? / 8.4:
Pruning Data / 8.4.1:
Leave-One-Out / 8.4.2:
Radial Basis Functions / 8.5:
A Variant: The Anchor Algorithm / 8.6:
Scaling, Multiple Outputs, and Parallelism / 8.7:
Scaling Properties / 8.7.1:
Multiple Outputs and Parallelism / 8.7.2:
A Computational Speedup for Learning / 8.7.3:
Computational Learning Theory and the BRD Algorithm / 8.7.4:
Introduction to Computational Learning Theory / 9.1:
PAC-Learning / 9.1.1:
Bounded Distributed Connectionist Networks / 9.1.2:
Probabilistic Bounded Distributed Concepts / 9.1.3:
A Learning Algorithm for Probabilistic Bounded Distributed Concepts / 9.2:
The BRD Theorem / 9.3:
Polynomial Learning / 9.3.1:
Noisy Data and Fallback Estimates / 9.4:
Vapnik-Chervonenkis Bounds / 9.4.1:
Hoeffding and Chernoff Bounds / 9.4.2:
Pocket Algorithm / 9.4.3:
Additional Training Examples / 9.4.4:
Bounds for Single-Layer Algorithms / 9.5:
Fitting Data by Limiting the Number of Iterations / 9.6:
Discussion / 9.7:
Exercise / 9.8:
Constructive Algorithms / 9.9:
The Tower and Pyramid Algorithms / 10.1:
The Tower Algorithm / 10.1.1:
Proof of Convergence / 10.1.2:
A Computational Speedup / 10.1.4:
The Pyramid Algorithm / 10.1.5:
The Cascade-Correlation Algorithm / 10.2:
The Tiling Algorithm / 10.3:
The Upstart Algorithm / 10.4:
Other Constructive Algorithms and Pruning / 10.5:
Easy Learning Problems / 10.6:
Decomposition / 10.6.1:
Expandable Network Problems / 10.6.2:
Limits of Easy Learning / 10.6.3:
Backpropagation / 10.7:
The Backpropagation Algorithm / 11.1:
Statement of the Algorithm / 11.1.1:
A Numerical Example / 11.1.2:
Derivation / 11.2:
Practical Considerations / 11.3:
Determination of Correct Outputs / 11.3.1:
Initial Weights / 11.3.2:
Choice of r / 11.3.3:
Momentum / 11.3.4:
Network Topology / 11.3.5:
Local Minima / 11.3.6:
Activations in [0,1] versus [-1, 1] / 11.3.7:
Update after Every Training Example / 11.3.8:
Other Squashing Functions / 11.3.9:
NP-Completeness / 11.4:
Overuse / 11.5:
Interesting Intermediate Cells / 11.5.2:
Continuous Outputs / 11.5.3:
Probability Outputs / 11.5.4:
Using Backpropagation to Train Multilayer Perceptrons / 11.5.5:
Backpropagation: Variations and Applications / 11.6:
NETtalk / 12.1:
Input and Output Representations / 12.1.1:
Experiments / 12.1.2:
Backpropagation through Time / 12.1.3:
Handwritten Character Recognition / 12.3:
Neocognitron Architecture / 12.3.1:
The Network / 12.3.2:
Robot Manipulator with Excess Degrees of Freedom / 12.3.3:
The Problem / 12.4.1:
Training the Inverse Network / 12.4.2:
Plan Units / 12.4.3:
Simulated Annealing and Boltzmann Machines / 12.4.4:
Simulated Annealing / 13.1:
Boltzmann Machines / 13.2:
The Boltzmann Model / 13.2.1:
Boltzmann Learning / 13.2.2:
The Boltzmann Algorithm and Noise Clamping / 13.2.3:
Example: The 4-2-4 Encoder Problem / 13.2.4:
Remarks / 13.3:
Neural Network Expert Systems / 13.4:
Expert Systems and Neural Networks / 14:
Expert Systems / 14.1:
What Is an Expert System? / 14.1.1:
Why Expert Systems? / 14.1.2:
Historically Important Expert Systems / 14.1.3:
Critique of Conventional Expert Systems / 14.1.4:
Neural Network Decision Systems / 14.2:
Example: Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Occlusion / 14.2.1:
Example: Autonomous Navigation / 14.2.2:
Other Examples / 14.2.3:
Decision Systems versus Expert Systems / 14.2.4:
MACIE, and an Example Problem / 14.3:
Diagnosis and Treatment of Acute Sarcophagal Disease / 14.3.1:
Network Generation / 14.3.2:
Sample Run of Macie / 14.3.3:
Real-Valued Variables and Winner-Take-All Groups / 14.3.4:
Not-Yet-Known versus Unavailable Variables / 14.3.5:
Applicability of Neural Network Expert Systems / 14.4:
Details of the MACIE System / 14.5:
Inferencing and Forward Chaining / 15.1:
Discrete Multilayer Perceptron Models / 15.1.1:
Continuous Variables / 15.1.2:
Winner-Take-All Groups / 15.1.3:
Using Prior Probabilities for More Aggressive Inferencing / 15.1.4:
Confidence Estimation / 15.2:
A Confidence Heuristic Prior to Inference / 15.2.1:
Confidence in Inferences / 15.2.2:
Information Acquisition and Backward Chaining / 15.3:
Concluding Comment / 15.4:
Noise, Redundancy, Fault Detection, and Bayesian Decision Theory / 15.5:
The High Tech Lemonade Corporation's Problem / 16.1:
The Deep Model and the Noise Model / 16.2:
Generating the Expert System / 16.3:
Probabilistic Analysis / 16.4:
Noisy Single-Pattern Boolean Fault Detection Problems / 16.5:
Convergence Theorem / 16.6:
Extracting Rules from networks / 16.7:
Why Rules? / 17.1:
What Kind of Rules? / 17.2:
Criteria / 17.2.1:
Inference Justifications versus Rule Sets / 17.2.2:
Which Variables in Conditions / 17.2.3:
Inference Justifications / 17.3:
MACIE's Algorithm / 17.3.1:
The Removal Algorithm / 17.3.2:
Key Factor Justifications / 17.3.3:
Justifications for Continuous Models / 17.3.4:
Rule Sets / 17.4:
Limiting the Number of Conditions / 17.4.1:
Approximating Rules / 17.4.2:
Conventional + Neural Network Expert Systems / 17.5:
Debugging an Expert System Knowledge Base / 17.5.1:
The Short-Rule Debugging Cycle / 17.5.2:
Appendix Representation Comparisons / 17.6:
DNF Expressions / A.1 DNF Expressions and Polynomial Representability:
Polynomial Representability / A.1.2:
Space Comparison of MLP and DNF Representations / A.1.3:
Speed Comparison of MLP and DNF Representations / A.1.4:
MLP versus DNF Representations / A.1.5:
Decision Trees / A.2:
Representing Decision Trees by MLP's / A.2.1:
Speed Comparison / A.2.2:
Decision Trees versus MLP's / A.2.3:
p-lDiagrams / A.3:
Symmetric Functions and Depth Complexity / A.4:
Bibliography / A.5:
Index
Foreword
Basics / I:
Introduction and Important Definitions / 1:
8.

図書

図書
A. Wayne Wymore
出版情報: Boca Raton : CRC Press, c1993  xiii, 710 p. ; 25 cm
シリーズ名: Systems engineering series
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9.

図書

図書
F. Joseph Schork, Pradeep B. Deshpande, Kenneth W. Leffew, with contributions by Vikas M. Nadkarni
出版情報: New York : M. Dekker, c1993  xiv, 355 p. ; 24 cm
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10.

図書

図書
F. Albert Cotton and Richard A. Walton
出版情報: Oxford : Clarendon Press , New York : Oxford University Press, 1993  xxii, 787 p. ; 25 cm
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目次情報: 続きを見る
Introduction and Survey
Prolog / 1.1:
From Werner to the new transition metal chemistry / 1.1.1:
Prior to about 1963 / 1.1.2:
How It All Began / 1.2:
Rhenium chemistry from 1963 to 1965 / 1.2.1:
The recognition of the quadruple bond / 1.2.2:
Initial work on other elements / 1.2.3:
An Overview of the Multiple Bonds / 1.3:
A qualitative picture of the quadruple bond / 1.3.1:
Bond orders less than four / 1.3.2:
Oxidation states / 1.3.3:
Growth of the Field / 1.4:
Going Beyond Two / 1.5:
Complexes of the Group 5 Elements
General Remarks / 2.1:
Divanadium Compounds / 2.2:
Triply-bonded divanadium compounds / 2.2.1:
Metal-metal vs metal-ligand bonding / 2.2.2:
Divanadium compounds with the highly reduced V23+ core / 2.2.3:
Diniobium Compounds / 2.3:
Diniobium paddlewheel complexes / 2.3.1:
Diniobium compounds with calix[4]arene ligands and related species / 2.3.2:
Tantalum / 2.4:
Chromium Compounds
Dichromium Tetracarboxylates / 3.1:
History and preparation / 3.1.1:
Properties of carboxylate compounds / 3.1.2:
Unsolvated Cr2(O2CR)4 compounds / 3.1.3:
Other Paddlewheel Compounds / 3.2:
The first 'supershort' bonds / 3.2.1:
2-Oxopyridinate and related compounds / 3.2.2:
Carboxamidate compounds / 3.2.3:
Amidinate compounds / 3.2.4:
Guanidinate compounds / 3.2.5:
Miscellaneous Dichromium Compounds / 3.3:
Compounds with intramolecular axial interactions / 3.3.1:
Compounds with Cr-C bonds / 3.3.2:
Other pertinent results / 3.3.3:
Concluding Remarks / 3.4:
Molybdenum Compounds
Dimolybdenum Bridged by Carboxylates or Other O,O Ligands / 4.1:
General remarks / 4.1.1:
Mo2(O2CR)4 compounds / 4.1.2:
Other compounds with bridging carboxyl groups / 4.1.3:
Paddlewheels with other O,O anion bridges / 4.1.4:
Paddlewheel Compounds with O,N, N,N and Other Bridging Ligands / 4.2:
Compounds with anionic O,N bridging ligands / 4.2.1:
Compounds with anionic N,N bridging ligands / 4.2.2:
Compounds with miscellaneous other anionic bridging ligands / 4.2.3:
Non-Paddlewheel Mo24+ Compounds / 4.3:
Mo2X84- and Mo2X6(H2O)22- compounds / 4.3.1:
[Mo2X8H]3- compounds / 4.3.2:
Other aspects of dimolybdenum halogen compounds / 4.3.3:
M2X4L4 and Mo2X4(LL)2 compounds / 4.3.4:
Cationic complexes of Mo24+ / 4.3.5:
Complexes of Mo24+ with macrocyclic, polydentate and chelate ligands / 4.3.6:
Alkoxide compounds of the types Mo2(OR)4L4 and Mo2(OR)4(LL)2 / 4.3.7:
Other Aspects of Mo24+ Chemistry / 4.4:
Cleavage of Mo24+ compounds / 4.4.1:
Redox behavior of Mo24+ compounds / 4.4.2:
Hydrides and organometallics / 4.4.3:
Heteronuclear Mo-M compounds / 4.4.4:
An overview of Mo-Mo bond lengths in Mo24+ compounds / 4.4.5:
Higher-order Arrays of Dimolybdenum Units / 4.5:
General concepts / 4.5.1:
Two linked pairs with carboxylate spectator ligands / 4.5.2:
Two linked pairs with nonlabile spectator ligands / 4.5.3:
Squares: four linked pairs / 4.5.4:
Loops: two pairs doubly linked / 4.5.5:
Rectangular cyclic quartets / 4.5.6:
Other structural types / 4.5.7:
Tungsten Compounds
Multiple Bonds in Ditungsten Compounds / 5.1:
The W24+ Tetracarboxylates / 5.2:
W24+ Complexes Containing Anionic Bridging Ligands Other Than Carboxylate / 5.3:
W24+ Complexes without Bridging Ligands / 5.4:
Compounds coordinated by only anionic ligands / 5.4.1:
Compounds coordinated by four anionic ligands and four neutral ligands / 5.4.2:
Multiple Bonds in Heteronuclear Dimetal Compounds of Molybdenum and Tungsten / 5.5:
Paddlewheel Compounds with W25+ or W26+ Cores / 5.6:
X3 M ≡ MX3 Compounds of Molybdenum and Tungsten
Introduction / 6.1:
Homoleptic X3M ≡ MX3 Compounds / 6.2:
Synthesis and characterization of homoleptic M2X6 compounds / 6.2.1:
Bonding in M2X6 compounds / 6.2.2:
X3M ≡ MX3 Compounds as Molecular Precursors to Extended Solids / 6.2.3:
M2X2(NMe2)4 and M2X4(NMe2)2 Compounds / 6.3:
Other M2X2Y4, M2X6-n Yn and Related Compounds / 6.4:
Mo2X2(CH2SiMe3)4 compounds / 6.4.1:
1,2-M2R2(NMe2)4 compounds and their derivatives / 6.4.2:
M4 Complexes: Clusters or Dimers? / 6.5:
Molybdenum and tungsten twelve-electron clusters M4(OR)12 / 6.5.1:
M4X4(OPri)8 (X = Cl, Br) and Mo4Br3(OPri)9 / 6.5.2:
W4 (p-tolyl)2 (OPri)10 / 6.5.3:
W4O(X)(OPri)9, (X = Cl or OPri) / 6.5.4:
K(18-crown-6)2Mo44-H)(OCH2But)12 / 6.5.5:
Linked M4 units containing localized MM triple bonds / 6.5.6:
M2X6L, M2X6L2 and Related Compounds / 6.6:
Mo2(CH2Ph)2(OPri)4(PMe3) and [Mo2(OR)7]- / 6.6.1:
M2(OR)6L2 compounds and their congeners / 6.6.2:
Amido-containing compounds / 6.6.3:
Mo2Br2(CHSiMe3)2(PMe3)4 / 6.6.4:
Calix[4]arene complexes / 6.6.5:
Triple Bonds Uniting Five- and Six-Coordinate Metal Atoms / 6.7:
Redox Reactions at the M26+ Unit / 6.8:
Organometallic Chemistry of M2(OR)6 and Related Compounds / 6.9:
Carbonyl adducts and their products / 6.9.1:
Isocyanide complexes / 6.9.2:
Reactions with alkynes / 6.9.3:
Reactions with C≡N bonds / 6.9.4:
Reactions with C=C bonds / 6.9.5:
Reactions with H2 / 6.9.6:
Reactions with organometallic compounds / 6.9.7:
(η-C5H4R)2W2X4 compounds where R = Me, Pri and X = Cl, Br / 6.9.8:
Conclusion / 6.10:
Technetium Compounds
Synthesis and Properties of Technetium / 7.1:
Preparation of Dinuclear and Polynuclear Technetium Compounds / 7.2:
Bonds of Order 4 and 3.5 / 7.3:
Tc26+ and Tc25+ Carboxylates and Related Species with Bridging Ligands / 7.4:
Bonds of Order 3 / 7.5:
Hexanuclear and Octanuclear Technetium Clusters / 7.6:
Rhenium Compounds
The Last Naturally Occurring Element to Be Discovered / 8.1:
Synthesis and Structure of the Octachlorodirhenate(III) Anion / 8.2:
Synthesis and Structure of the Other Octahalodirhenate(III) Anions / 8.3:
Substitution Reactions of the Octahalodirhenate(III) Anions that Proceed with Retention of the Re26+ Core / 8.4:
Monodentate anionic ligands / 8.4.1:
The dirhenium(III) carboxylates / 8.4.2:
Other anionic ligands / 8.4.3:
Neutral ligands / 8.4.4:
Dirhenium Compounds with Bonds of Order 3.5 and 3 / 8.5:
The first metal-metal triple bond: Re2Cl5(CH3SCH2CH2SCH3)2 and related species / 8.5.1:
Simple electron-transfer chemistry involving the octahalodirhenate(III) anions and related species that contain quadruple bonds / 8.5.2:
Oxidation of [Re2X8]2- to the nonahalodirhenate anions [Re2X9]n- (n = 1 or 2) / 8.5.3:
Re25+ and Re24+ halide complexes that contain phosphine ligands / 8.5.4:
Other Re25+ and Re24+ complexes / 8.5.5:
Other dirhenium compounds with triple bonds / 8.5.6:
Dirhenium Compounds with Bonds of Order Less than 3 / 8.6:
Cleavage of Re-Re Multiple Bonds by o-donor and π-acceptor Ligands / 8.7:
σ-Donor ligands / 8.7.1:
Jπ-Acceptor ligands / 8.7.2:
Other Types of Multiply Bonded Dirhenium Compounds / 8.8:
Postscript on Recent Developments / 8.9:
Ruthenium Compounds
Ru25+ Compounds / 9.1:
Ru25+ compounds with O,O′-donor bridging ligands / 9.2.1:
Ru25+ compounds with N,O-donor bridging ligands / 9.2.2:
Ru25+ compounds with N,N′-donor bridging ligands / 9.2.3:
Ru24+ Compounds / 9.3:
Ru24+ compounds with O,O′-donor bridging ligands / 9.3.1:
Ru24+ compounds with N,O-donor bridging ligands / 9.3.2:
Ru24+ compounds with N,N′-donor bridging ligands / 9.3.3:
Ru26+ Compounds / 9.4:
Ru26+ compounds with O,O′-donor bridging ligands / 9.4.1:
Ru26+ compounds with N,N′-donor bridging ligands / 9.4.2:
Compounds with Macrocyclic Ligands / 9.5:
Applications / 9.6:
Catalytic activity / 9.6.1:
Biological importance / 9.6.2:
Osmium Compounds
Syntheses, Structures and Reactivity of Os26+ Compounds / 10.1:
Syntheses and Structures of Os25+ Compounds / 10.2:
Syntheses and Structures of Other Os2 Compounds / 10.3:
Magnetism, Electronic Structures, and Spectroscopy / 10.4:
Iron, Cobalt and Iridium Compounds / 10.5:
Di-iron Compounds / 11.1:
Dicobalt Compounds / 11.3:
Tetragonal paddlewheel compounds / 11.3.1:
Trigonal paddlewheel compounds / 11.3.2:
Dicobalt compounds with unsupported bonds / 11.3.3:
Compounds with chains of cobalt atoms / 11.3.4:
Di-iridium Compounds / 11.4:
Paddlewheel compounds and related species / 11.4.1:
Unsupported Ir-Ir bonds / 11.4.2:
Other species with Ir-Ir bonds / 11.4.3:
Iridium blues / 11.4.4:
Rhodium Compounds
Dirhodium Tetracarboxylato Compounds / 12.1:
Preparative methods and classification / 12.2.1:
Structural studies / 12.2.2:
Other Dirhodium Compounds Containing Bridging Ligands / 12.3:
Complexes with fewer than four carboxylate bridging groups / 12.3.1:
Complexes supported by hydroxypyridinato, carboxamidato and other (N, O) donor monoanionic bridging groups / 12.3.2:
Complexes supported by amidinato and other (N, N) donor bridging groups / 12.3.3:
Complexes supported by sulfur donor bridging ligands / 12.3.4:
Complexes supported by phosphine and (P, N) donor bridging ligands / 12.3.5:
Complexes supported by carbonate, sulfate and phosphate bridging groups / 12.3.6:
Dirhodium Compounds with Unsupported Rh-Rh Bonds / 12.4:
The dirhodium(II) aquo ion / 12.4.1:
The [Rh2(NCR)10]4+ cations / 12.4.2:
Complexes with chelating and macrocyclic nitrogen ligands / 12.4.3:
Other Dirhodium Compounds / 12.5:
Complexes with isocyanide ligands / 12.5.1:
Rhodium blues / 12.5.2:
Reactions of Rh24+ Compounds / 12.6:
Oxidation to Rh25+ and Rh26+ species / 12.6.1:
Cleavage of the Rh-Rh bond / 12.6.2:
Applications of Dirhodium Compounds / 12.7:
Catalysis / 12.7.1:
Supramolecular arrays based on dirhodium building blocks / 12.7.2:
Biological applications of dirhodium compounds / 12.7.3:
Photocatalytic reactions / 12.7.4:
Other applications / 12.7.5:
Chiral Dirhodium(II) Catalysts and Their Applications
Synthetic and Structural Aspects of Chiral Dirhodium(II) Carboxamidates / 13.1:
Synthetic and Structural Aspects of Dirhodium(II) Complexes Bearing Orthometalated Phosphines / 13.3:
Dirhodium(II) Compounds as Catalysts / 13.4:
Catalysis of Diazo Decomposition / 13.5:
Chiral Dirhodium(II) Carboxylates / 13.6:
Chiral Dirhodium(II) Carboxamidates / 13.7:
Catalytic Asymmetric Cyclopropanation and Cyclopropenation / 13.8:
Intramolecular reactions / 13.8.1:
Intermolecular reactions / 13.8.2:
Cyclopropenation / 13.8.3:
Macrocyclization / 13.8.4:
Metal Carbene Carbon-Hydrogen Insertion / 13.9:
Catalytic Ylide Formation and Reactions / 13.9.1:
Additional Transformations of Diazo Compounds Catalyzed by Dirhodium(II) / 13.11:
Silicon-Hydrogen Insertion / 13.12:
Nickel, Palladium and Platinum Compounds
Dinickel Compounds / 14.1:
Dipalladium Compounds / 14.3:
A singly bonded Pd26+ species / 14.3.1:
Chemistry of Pd25+ and similar species / 14.3.2:
Other compounds with Pd-Pd interactions / 14.3.3:
Diplatinum Compounds / 14.4:
Complexes with sulfate and phosphate bridges / 14.4.1:
Complexes with pyrophosphite and related ligands / 14.4.2:
Complexes with carboxylate, formamidinate and related ligands / 14.4.3:
Complexes containing monoanionic bridging ligands with N,O and N,S donor sets / 14.4.4:
Unsupported Pt-Pt bonds / 14.4.5:
Dinuclear Pt25+ species / 14.4.6:
The platinum blues / 14.4.7:
Other compounds
Extended Metal Atom Chains
Overview / 15.1:
EMACs of Chromium / 15.2:
EMACs of Cobalt / 15.3:
EMACs of Nickel and Copper / 15.4:
EMACs of Ruthenium and Rhodium / 15.5:
Other Metal Atom Chains / 15.6:
Physical, Spectroscopic and Theoretical Results
Structural Correlations / 16.1:
Bond orders and bond lengths / 16.1.1:
Internal rotation / 16.1.2:
Axial ligands / 16.1.3:
Comparison of second and third transition series homologs / 16.1.4:
Disorder in crystals / 16.1.5:
Rearrangements of M2X8 type molecules / 16.1.6:
Diamagnetic anisotropy of M-M multiple bonds / 16.1.7:
Thermodynamics / 16.2:
Thermochemical data / 16.2.1:
Bond energies / 16.2.2:
Electronic Structure Calculations / 16.3:
Background / 16.3.1:
[M2X8]n- and M2X4(PR3)4 species / 16.3.2:
The M2(O2CR)4 (M = Cr, Mo, W) molecules / 16.3.3:
M2(O2CR)4R′2 (M = Mo, W) compounds / 16.3.4:
Dirhodium species / 16.3.5:
Diruthenium compounds / 16.3.6:
M2X6 molecules (M = Mo, W) / 16.3.7:
Other calculations / 16.3.8:
Electronic Spectra / 16.4:
Details of the δ manifold of states / 16.4.1:
Observed δ → δ* transitions / 16.4.2:
Other electronic absorption bands of Mo2, W2, Tc2 and Re2 species / 16.4.3:
Spectra of Rh2, Pt2, Ru2 and Os2 compounds / 16.4.4:
CD and ORD spectra / 16.4.5:
Excited state distortions inferred from vibronic structure / 16.4.6:
Emission spectra and photochemistry / 16.4.7:
Photoelectron Spectra / 16.5:
Paddlewheel molecules / 16.5.1:
Other tetragonal molecules / 16.5.2:
M2X6 molecules / 16.5.3:
Miscellaneous other PES results / 16.5.4:
Vibrational Spectra / 16.6:
M-M stretching vibrations / 16.6.1:
M-L stretching vibrations / 16.6.2:
Other types of Spectra / 16.7:
Electron Paramagnetic Resonance / 16.7.1:
X-Ray spectra, EXAFS, and XPS / 16.7.2:
Abbreviations
Index
Introduction and Survey
Prolog / 1.1:
From Werner to the new transition metal chemistry / 1.1.1:
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