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東工大
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Tatsuo Ohmachi, Emerlinda R. Roman, editors
出版情報: [Quezon City] : University of the Philippines Press, 2002  xii, 388 p. ; 24 cm.
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Acknowledgments
Preface
1- Introduction
   1.1 Ending the Cycle of Environmental Deterioration Tatsuo Ohmachi 3
   1.2 Necessities of Simulation and Policy Impact Analysis Kenji Doi and Hussein S. Lidasan 10
2- Political Economy of Environmental Issues
   2.1 Introduction Hiromu Shimizu 19
   2.2 Weak State and Strong Civil Society: Politics of the Clean Air Act Yutaka Katayama 21
   2.3 Building Bridges: Poverty, Customs and Environmental Politics Toru Nakanishi 38
   2.4 Housing Policies and Development in Asian Cities: Singapore, Hong Kong, Bangkok and Metro Manila Yoshiyuki Osakaya 48
3- Macro Simulation of Socioeconomies and the Environment: A Comprehensive Approach
   3.1 Introduction Kenji Doi 59
   3.2 Migration and Environmental Issues in Economic Development Toru Nakanishi 61
   3.3 Structural Analysis of Regional Economics of Metro Manila Based on the Interregional IO Table Francisco T. Secretario, Kwangmun Kim, Kenji Doi and Wataru Morishima 70
   3.4 Analysis of Energy Consumption and Environmental Burdens by an Interregional IO Table Yohji Uchiyama, Kazuhiko Nishimura and Kei Kawashima 87
   3.5 Utilizing IRIO in Interregional Transportation Policy: Methodology and Case Study in Japan Shoshi Mizokami 98
   3.6 Forecasting the Interaction System Between Urban Expansion and Motorization Masanobu Kii and Kenji Doi 112
4- Simulation of Environmental Rehabilitation in Highly Polluted Areas
   4.1 Introduction Tetsuo Yai 133
   4.2 Outline of Microscopic Road Traffic Simulation Tetsuo Yai and Karl N. Vergel 135
   4.3 Observation and Analysis of SPM Concentration in Makati Seiji Iwakura 149
   4.4 Local Wind System and 3D Dispersion of Polluted Air in Metro Manila Manabu Kanda 156
5- Simulation for Green Metropolis Rehabilitation
   5.1 Introduction Kazuhiko Takeuchi 171
   5.2 Trends in Spatial Extension and Land-Use Mixture in Metro Manila Akinobu Murakami, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Atsushi Tsunekawa and Alinda M. Zain 174
   5.3 Distribution and Structure of Urban Green Spaces in Metro Manila Noriko Moriwake, Armando Palijon and Kazuhiko Takeuchi 185
   5.4 Carbon Circulation and Functions for the Development of Urban Green Spaces in Metro Manila Kaori Ono, Ai Meguro and Kenji Iiyama 199
   5.5 Southeast Asian High-Density Habitation and the Formation of a Comfortable Outdoor Thermal Environment Akira Hoyano, Seonghwan Yoon and Akinaru Iino 210
   5.6 Toward Creating a "Sustainable City" Akira Hoyano, Akinaru Iino and Seonghwan Yoon 222
6- A Scheme of Environmental Improvement by Recycling Organic Matter Between Urban and Rural Areas
   6.1 Introduction Tadaharu Ishikawa 241
   6.2 Basic Viewpoints for the Rehabilitation of Water Environment Tadaharu Ishikawa, Toru Nakanishi and Xin Qian 243
   6.3 Water-Related Problems in Urban Areas Tadaharu Ishikawa and Ken Ushijima 252
   6.4 Framework for Recycling Organic Waste Kenta Shinozawa, Ken Ushijima and Tetsuo Shimizu 267
   6.5 Circulation of Organic Matter Between Metro Manila and Pampanga Lahar-Affected Areas in Pinatubo Makiko Watanabe, Masao Yoshida and Hiroyuki Ohta 281
   6.6 Transport of Compost Tadaharu Ishikawa, Makiko Watanabe and Toru Nakanishi 294
7- Reduction of Risk of Natural Disaster in a Developing Urban Area
   7.1 Expansion of Damage Potential Area Due to Urban Sprawling Saburoh Midorikawa and Bartolome C. Bautista 301
   7.2 Estimation of Seismic Risk in Metro Manila Hiroaki Yamanaka, Saburoh Midorikawa, Yoshihiro Kinugasa, Bartolome C. Bautista and Rolly E. Rimando 308
   7.3 Estimation of Disaster Due to Strong Wind Tetsuro Tamura, Makoto Tsubokura, Shuyang Cao and Osamu Ohno 327
Appendices
   Panel Discussion 349
   Project Team Leaders and Members 373
   List of Contributors 379
Index 381
Acknowledgments
Preface
1- Introduction
2.

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Mitsumasa Iwamoto, Wu Chen-Xu
出版情報: Singapore, New York : World Scientific Publishing, c2001  x, 205 p. ; 23 cm
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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
   1.1 Monolayer Structure and Monolayer Properties 2
   1.2 Surface Pressure/Area Isotherm 3
   1.3 Maxwell Displacement Current Measurement Technique 3
   1.4 Molecular Dynamics of Monolayer Films 5
   1.4.1 Orientational Orders in Two-dimensional Systems 5
   1.4.2 Interactions 8
   1.4.3 State Equation and Piezoelectric Effect 8
   14.4 Dielectric Constant 9
   1.4.5 Phase Transition and Critical Phenomena 9
   1.4.6 Dielectric Relaxation Phenomena 10
   1.4.7 Pattern Formation 10
   1.4.8 Optical Activity and Nonlinear Effect 11
   1.4.9 Thermally Stimulated Phenomena 13
   1.4.10 Electronic Properties at MIM Interfaces 14
   References 17
CHAPTER 2 POLARIZATION AND DIELECTRIC CONSTANT FOR 2D MEDIA 22
   2.1 Polarization 22
   2.2 Spontaneous Polarization 22
   2.3 First Order Polarization and Dielectric Constant 23
   2.3.1 Dielectric Anisotropy of Organic Monolayers 25
   2.3.2 Dielectric Contribution by Molecular Orientation 28
   2.3.3 Dielectric Constant 29
   2.4 Nonlinear Polarization 31
   2.5 Summary 34
   References 35
CHAPTER 3 MAXWELL DISPLACEMENT CURRENT METHOD 37
   3.1 Maxwell Displacement Curent 37
   3.2 Maxwell Displacement Curent by Monolayer Compression 38
   3.3 MDC Generated across Organic Monolayers Consisting of Molecules with Dielectric Anisotropy 40
   3.3.1 Molecular Structures and Experimental Results 41
   3.3.2 Molecule-surface Interaction 44
   3.3.3 Orientational Order Parameter for Biaxial Molecules 46
   3.3.4 Comparison between the Two Directions 49
   3.3.5 Simulation 55
   3.4 Phase Transition of Chiral Phospholipid Monolayers by Maxwell Displacement Current Measurement 57
   3.4.1 Maxwell Displacement Current of Chiral Phospholipid Monolayers 57
   3.4.2 Symmetry of MDC Generation Influenced by Chirality in Mixed Phospholipid Monolayers 60
   3.5 Maxwell Displacement Current by Photoirradiation 61
   3.6 Evaluation of Liquid Crystal Alignment Using MDC Technique 65
   3.7 Summary 74
   References 75
CHAPTER 4 MONOLAYERS VIEWED AS POLAR LIQUID CRYSTALS 78
   4.1 Model and Internal Electric Fields 79
   4.2 Polar Orientational Phase Transition in Smectic Monolayers 81
   4.3 Change of Orientational Order Parameter at the Critical Point 85
   4.3.1 Orientational Order Parameter 85
   4.3.2 Normal-director Smectic Phase (A/A0>ac) 86
   4.3.3 Tilted-director Smectic Phase (A/A0<ac) 87
   4.4 Dielectric Properties Influenced by the Orientational Phase Transition 88
   4.4.1 Orientational Order Parameter S1 89
   4.4.2 Dielectric Constant 89
   4.5 Summary 92
   References 93
CHAPTER 5 DIELECTRIC RELAXATION PHENOMENA 95
   5.1 Rotational Debye Brownian Motion Model 96
   5.1.1 Dielectric Relaxation Equation for Monolayer Films 98
   5.1.2 Dielectric Realxation Time 100
   5.1.3 Equivalent Circuit for Transient Relaxation Process 101
   5.2 Relaxation Process at an Air-water Interface 102
   5.2.1 Mean-field Approximation 102
   5.2.2 Closed Packing and Molecule-surface Interaction 105
   5.2.3 Relaxation Experiment of Monolayer Compression 107
   5.2.4 Interaction Coefficient 109
   5.3 Determination of Dielectric Relaxation Time 112
   5.4 Summary 114
   References 115
CHAPTER 6 CHIRAL PHASE SEPARATION 117
   6.1 Elastic Energy and Bragg-Williams Mixing Energy 118
   6.2 Chiral Phase Separation 120
   6.2.1 One-dimensional Periodical Solution 120
   6.2.2 One-dimensional Chiral Phase Separation 125
   6.3 Discrete One-dimensional CPS Solution 126
   6.3.1 One-dimensional General Solution 126
   6.3.2 One-dimensional Discrete Pattern 127
   6.3.3 Line Tension 128
   6.3.4 Pattern Formation 129
   6.4 Summary 131
   6.5 Appendix 132
   References 138
CHAPTER 7 NONLINEAR EFFECTS 140
   7.1 SOS in Orientational Order Parameters for C∞ Monolayers 142
   7.2 Chirality Representation 144
   7.3 SHG-CD Effect 145
   7.4 SHG-MDC Measuring System 145
   7.5 Quantum Mechanical Analysis of Photoisomerization 150
   7.6 Summary 153
   References 154
CHAPTER 8 THERMALLY-STIMULATED CURRENT 156
   8.1 Thermally-stimulated Current 156
   8.2 Depolarization due to Thermal Stimulation 158
   8.2.1 Liquid Phase 159
   8.2.2 Liquid-crystalline Phase 160
   8.3 TSC Experiment 163
   8.4 Phase Transition 163
   8.5 Thermodynamics Approach to Monolayers 165
   8.6 Summary 166
   References 167
CHAPTER 9 ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES AT MIM INTERFACES 168
   9.1 Tunneling Current and Electronic Device Applications 168
   9.2 Nanometric Interfacial Electrostatic Phenomena in Ultrathin Films 171
   9.2.1 Electrically Insulating Ultrathin Films 172
   9.2.2 Semiconductor Films 180
   9.3 I-V Characteristic 186
   9.3.1 PI LB Films 186
   9.3.2 Semiconductor Films 192
   9.4 Summary 196
   References 197
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
   1.1 Monolayer Structure and Monolayer Properties 2
   1.2 Surface Pressure/Area Isotherm 3
3.

図書

東工大
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図書
東工大
目次DB
Takaaki Tsurumi ... [et al.]
出版情報: Boca Raton [Fla.] : CRC Press, c2010  xii, 267 p., [8] p. of plates ; 25 cm
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Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Authors xi
Chapter 1 Fundamentals of quantum mechanics and band structure 1
   1.1 Fundamentals of quantum mechanics 1
    1.1.1 Probability amplitude and interference effects 1
    1.1.2 Uncertainty principle 5
    1.1.3 Wave functions 7
    1.1.4 Operators 8
    1.1.5 Eigenvalue and expected value 10
    1.1.6 Expansion theorem 10
    1.1.7 Schroedinger equation 11
    1.1.8 Principle of superposition 13
    1.1.9 Examples of solutions of the Schroedinger equation 14
     1.1.9.1 Electron in a one-dimensional (1D) box 14
     1.1.9.2 Harmonic oscillator 15
     1.1.9.3 Hydrogen atom 16
    1.1.10 Matrix mechanics and bra-ket (Dirac) notation 18
    1.1.11 Comparison of the Heisenberg and Schroedinger approaches to quantum mechanics 20
    1.1.12 Perturbation theory 22
   1.2 Electronic band structure of solids 27
    1.2.1 Free electron Fermi gas 27
    1.2.2 Nearly free electron model (DOS) 31
    1.2.3 Bloch function 33
    1.2.4 Kroenig-Penny model 33
    1.2.5 Tight binding model 35
    1.2.6 Phase velocity, group velocity, and effective mass 37
    1.2.7 Reciprocal lattice and the Brillouin zone 40
    1.2.8 Energy band structure of silicon (Si) 44
    1.2.9 Tight binding approximation for calculating the band structure of graphene 45
    1.2.10 Electron correlation 51
     1.2.10.1 Hartree-Fock approximation 51
     1.2.10.2 Density functional method 54
   1.3 Material properties with respect to characteristic size in nanostructures 56
   Problems 60
   References 60
Chapter 2 Electronic states and electrical properties of nanoscale materials 63
   2.1 Outline 63
   2.2 Low dimensionality and energy spectrum 64
    2.2.1 Space for electrons in materials 64
    2.2.2 Electron DOS of 3D materials with macroscopic dimensions 65
    2.2.3 Electron DOS in 2D materials (nanosheets) 67
    2.2.4 Electron DOS in lD materials (nanowires) 72
    2.2.5 Quantized conductance in 1D nanowire systems 74
    2.2.6 Electron DOS in 0D materials (nanodots) 77
   2.3 Quantization 79
    2.3.1 2D square wells 80
    2.3.2 2D cylindrical wells 83
    2.3.3 Shape effect on the quantized states 85
    2.3.4 Finite potential wells 87
    2.3.5 Band dispersion effect 93
   2.4 Edge (surface)-localized states 96
   2.5 Charging effect 100
   2.6 Tunneling phenomena 103
   2.7 Limiting factors for size effects 111
    2.7.1 Thermal fluctuation 111
    2.7.2 Lifetime broadening effect 113
   2.8 Electronically induced stable nanostructures 115
    2.8.1 Magic numbers in clusters 116
    2.8.2 Electronic growth 119
   Problems 122
   References 123
Chapter 3 Optical properties and interactions of nanoscale materials 125
   3.1 Size-dependent optical properties: Absorption and emission 125
    3.1.1 Basic quantum mechanics of linear optical transitions 126
    3.1.2 General concept of excitons 133
    3.1.3 Wannier excitons 135
    3.1.4 Size effects in high-dielectric-constant materials 136
    3.1.5 Size effects in π-conjugated systems 140
    3.1.6 Strongly interacting π-conjugated systems: A molecular dimer 144
    3.1.7 Molecular Frenkel exciton 149
    3.1.8 Size effects in molecular excitons: Coherence length and cooperative phenomena 153
    3.1.9 Effects of finite number of optical electrons 157
   3.2 Size-dependent optical properties: Absorption and scattering 158
    3.2.1 Basic theory of light scattering 160
    3.2.2 Size-dependent scattering from dielectric spheres: Mie solutions 164
    3.2.3 Optical properties of metal nanoparticles: Plasmonics 169
    3.2.4 Local field enhancement and surface-enhanced Raman scattering 176
   3.3 Size-dependent electromagnetic interactions: Particle-particle 179
    3.3.1 Radiative energy transfer 179
    3.3.2 Foerster resonant energy transfer (FRET) 180
    3.3.3 Electron-exchange (Dexter) energy transfer 187
    3.3.4 Photo-induced electron transfer 190
   3.4 Size-dependent interactions: Particle-light interactions in finite geometries 191
    3.4.1 Optical interactions in microcavities 191
    3.4.2 Effects of dielectric interfaces 198
   Problems 201
   References 204
Chapter 4 Magnetic and magnetotransport properties of nanoscale materials 207
   4.1 Fundamentals of magnetism 207
    4.1.1 Magnetic ions and magnetic ordering 207
    4.1.2 Exchange interaction 208
    4.1.3 Mean field theory of ferromagnetism 211
   4.2 Size and surface effects in 3D confined systems 213
    4.2.1 Quantization of electronic structures and the Kubo effect 214
    4.2.2 Surface magnetism of transition noble metals 220
   4.3 Ferromagnetic domain-wall-related phenomena 229
    4.3.1 Macroscopic quantum tunneling in magnetic nanostructures 229
    4.3.2 Electron scattering at domain walls: Quantum coherence 233
    4.3.3 Spin current and spin transfer torque-current-induced domain wall motion 235
   4.4 Spin transport in magnetic nanostructures: Magnetic interface effect 240
    4.4.1 GMR and TMR effect: Spin-dependent scattering in multilayers and tunneling junctions 240
    4.4.2 Spin accumulation and current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) GMR: Spin diffusion length 245
    4.4.3 Spin Hall effect: Side jump and skew scattering due to spin-orbit coupling 249
   Problems 253
   References 253
Index 257
Preface vii
Acknowledgments ix
Authors xi
4.

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図書
editors, Nikos Hadjichristidis ... [et al.]
出版情報: Singapore : John Wiley & Sons, 2011  xxiii, 832 p. ; 25 cm
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List of Contributors
Preface
About the Editors
Synthesis / Part 1:
Cyclic and Multicyclic Topological Polymers / Takuya Yamamoto ; Yasuyuki Tezuka1:
Ultrarapid Approaches to Mild Macromolecular Conjugation / Andrew J. Inglis ; Christopher Barner-Kowollik2:
Synthesis and Self-Assembly of Hydrogen-Bonded Supramolecular Polymers / Wolfgang H. Binder ; Claudia Enders ; Florian Herbst ; Katharina Hackethal3:
Recent Synthetic Developments in Miktoarm Star Polymers with More than Three Different Arms / Akira Hirao ; Mayumi Hayashi ; Tomoya Higashihara ; Nikos Hadjichristidis4:
Precise Synthesis of Dendrimer-Like Star-Branched Polymers, a New Class of Well-Defined Hyperbranched Polymers / Hee-Soo Yoo5:
Arborescent Polymers with a Mesoscopic Scale / Toufic Nabil Aridi ; Mario Gauthier6:
Hyperbranched Glyco-Conjugated Polymers / Toshifumi Satoh ; Toyoji Kakuchi7:
Highly Branched Functional Polymer Architectures by Click-Chemistry Strategies / Mieke Lammens ; Filip Du Prez8:
Living Alkene Polymerization for Polyolefin Architectures / Amelia M. Anderson-Wile ; Joseph B. Edson ; Geoffrey W. Coates9:
Precision Polyolefins / Erik B. Berda ; Kenneth B. Wagener10:
Polyhomologation: The Living Polymerization of Ylides / Jun Luo ; Kenneth J. Shea11:
Phenylenevinylene Homopolymers and Block Copolymers via Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization / Chin-Yang Yu ; Michael L. Turner12:
Block Copolymers Containing Rod Segments / Mitsuru Ueda13:
Synthesis of Well-Defined Poly(meth)acrylamides with Varied Stereoregularity by Living Anionic Polymerization / Takashi Ishizone14:
Complex Macromolecular Chimeras / Hermis Iatrou ; Marinos Pitsikalis ; Georgios Sakellariouand Nikos Hadjichristidis15:
Characterization And Self-Assembly / Part 2:
Self-Assembly and Applications of Polyferrocenylsilane Block Copolymers / George R. Whittell ; Jessica Gwyther ; David A. Rider ; Ian Manners16:
Functional Polymeric Nanostructures Prepared by Self-Assembly and Beyond / Rachel K. O'Reilly17:
Morphologies of Block and Star-Branched Polymers with Three Components / Hirokazu Hasegawa18:
Morphologies and Photophysical Properties of Conjugated Rod-Coil Block Copolymers / Chi-Ching Kuo ; Cheng-Liang Liu ; Wen-Chang Chen19:
Bulk Self-Assembly of Linear Hybrid Polypeptide-Based Diblock and Triblock Copolymers / Sebastien Lecommandoux20:
AFM Study of Comb (Co)Polymers with Complex Chain Architecture / Michel Schappacher ; Alain Deffieux)21:
Tunable Thermoresponsive Polymers by Molecular Design / Richard Hoogenboom22:
Fluorine-Containing Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Application as a Template for Nanocellular and Porous Structures Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide / Hideaki Yokoyama ; Kenji Sugiyama23:
Architectural Polymers, Nanostructures, and Hierarchical Structures from Block Copolymers / Ian Wyman ; Guojun Liu24:
Block Copolymer Nanostructured Thin Films for Advanced Patterning / Michelle A. Chavis ; Evan L. Schwartz ; Christopher K. Ober25:
Ring Polymers: Effective Isolation and Unique Properties / Haskell W. Beckham26:
Acknowledgments
References
Index.
List of Contributors
Preface
About the Editors
5.

図書

図書
edited by Yasuyuki Tezuka
出版情報: Singapore ; New Jersey : World Scientific, c2013  xi, 352 p. ; 24 cm
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6.

図書

図書
edited by J. O'M. Bockris and B.E. Conway
出版情報: London : Butterworths , New York : Plenum Press, 1964-  v. ; 22 cm
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Applications of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Hydrogen Adsorption, Evolution and Absorption into Metals / A. Lasia1:
Electroless Deposition of Metals / D. Djokic2:
Towards a Computational Electrochemistry - a Kineticist's Perspective / L.K. Bieniasz3:
Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Bridging Electrolyte - Water Systems / M.A. Abraham ; M.-C. Abraham4:
Factors Limiting Applications of the Historically Significant Born Equation: A Critical Review / B.E. Conway5:
References
Nanoparticle Surfaces Studied by Electrochemical NMR / P. K. Babu ; E. Oldfield ; A. WieckowskiChapter 1:
Introduction / I.:
Experimental / II.:
Results and Discussion / III.:
Selected Topics in [superscript 195]Pt-NMR / 1.:
Other Pt Nanoparticles (Unsupported and Supported) / 2.:
Correlation Between the [superscript 195]Pt NMR Shift and Adsorbates Electronegativity / 3.:
Spatially-Resolved Oscillation of the E[subscript f]-LDOS in a Pt Catalyst / 4.:
[superscript 13]C NMR at the Electrochemical Interface / IV.:
[superscript 13]C NMR Knight Shift
EC-NMR Under Potential Control
Correlation of NMR to FTIR Data
Correlation Between Clean Surface E[subscript f]-LDOS of Metals and the Adsorbate Knight Shift
NMR Comparison of CO Adsorbed on Pt-Black from Different Sources / 5.:
Effect of Surface Charge on the Chemisorption Bond: CO Chemisorption on Pd / 6.:
Pt Electrodes Modified by Ruthenium: A Study in Tolerance / 7.:
EC-NMR of Pt/Ru Alloy Nanoparticles / 8.:
Summary and Conclusions / V.:
Appendix
Ab Initio Quantum-Chemical Calculations in Electrochemistry / Marc T. M. KoperChapter 2:
Ab Initio Quantum Chemistry
General Aspects of Quantum Chemistry and Electronic Structure Calculations
Wave-Function-Based Methods
Density Functional Theory Methods
Basis Sets and Effective Potentials
Structure, Energetics, and Vibrational Frequencies
Methods of Analysis
Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics
Selected Applications
Clusters and Slabs
How to Model the Electrode Potential
Chemisorption of Halogens and Halides
Chemisorption of Carbon Monoxide on Metals and Alloys
Field Dependent Chemisorption and the Interfacial Stark Effect: General Relationships
Field-Dependent Chemisorption of Carbon Monoxide
Chemisorption of Water and Water Dissociation Products
Ab Initio Approaches to Modeling Electrode Reactions
Outlook
Macroscopic and Molecular Models of Adsorption Phenomena on Electrode Surfaces / P. NikitasChapter 3:
Features of Electrosorption and Factors Affecting Them
Macroscopic Models
PC Approach
STE Approach
Molecular Models
Guidealli's Approach
Models Based on the LBS Approach
Complicated Adsorption Phenomena
Co-Adsorption and Reorientation
Polylayer Formation
Surface Segregation
Phase Transitions
Polarization Catastrophe and Other Artifacts / VI.:
The Role of the Metal Electrode--The Case of Solid Electrodes / VII.:
Computer Simulation / VIII.:
Conclusions / IX.:
Electrochemical Promotion of Catalysis / Gyorgy Foti ; Ivan Bolzonella ; Christos ComninellisChapter 4:
The Phenomenon of Electrochemical Promotion
Description of a Typical Electrochemical Promotion Experiment
The Mechanism of Electrochemical Promotion
Promotional Transients
Fundamental Studies of Electrochemical Promotion
Catalytic Model Systems
Experimental Aspects
Electrochemical Characterization of the Single-Pellet Cell
Cyclic Voltammetry
Fast-Galvanostatic Transients
Permanent Electrochemical Promotion
Electrochemical Activation of a Catalyst
Electrochemical Promotion and Catalyst-Support Interactions
Work Function Measurements / 9.:
Cell Development for Electrochemical Promotion
Bipolar Con guration for Electrochemical Promotion
Ring-Shaped Electrochemical Cell
Multiple-Channel Electrochemical Cell
Perspectives
Mechanisms of Lithium Transport Through Transition Metal Oxides and Carbonaceous Materials / Heon-Cheol Shin ; Su-Il PyunChapter 5:
Bird's Eye View of the Models for Current Transients in Lithium Intercalation Systems: Diffusion Controlled Lithium Transport
The Geometry of the Electrode Surface
The Growth of a New Phase in the Electrode
The Electric Field in the Electrode
General Perspective on Current Transients from Transition Metal Oxides and Graphite
Non-Cottrell behavior throughout the Lithium Intercalation/Deintercalation
Intersection of Anodic and Cathodic Current Transients
(Quasi-)Current Plateau
Depression of the Initial Current Value
Physical Origin of the Current Transients
Linear Relation Between Current and Electrode Potential
Comparison of Cell Resistances Determined by the Current Transient Technique and by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Theoretical Description of Cell-Impedance Controlled Lithium Transport
Governing Equation and Boundary Condition
Calculation Procedure of the Cell-Impedance Controlled Current Transients
Theoretical Current Transients and their Comparison with Experimental Current Transients
Some Model Parameters Affecting the Shape and Magnitude of the Cell-Impedance Controlled Current Transients
Concluding Remarks
Index
The Potential of Zero Charge / S. Trasatti ; E. Lust
Introductory Concepts / I:
Analysis of the Experimental Data / II:
Nonequilibrium Fluctuations in Corrosion Process / R. AogakiIV:
Active, Passive and Transpassive States of Metals
Nonequilibrum Fluctuations in Corrosion
Conclusion
Conducting Polymers, Electrochemistry and Biomimicking Processes / T. Fernandez Otero
Electropolymerization of Conducting polymers
Electrochemical versus Chemical Polymerization of Conducting Polymers
Selfdoped Polymers, Polymeric Composites and Hybrid Materials
Physical Properties of Dry Conducting Polymers
Electrochemical Properties / VI:
Electrochemistry and Electrode Structures / VII:
Experimental Chronoamperograms and Chronocoulograms Under Conformational Relaxation Control / VIII:
Polymer-Solvent Interactions from the ESCR Model / IX:
Chronocoulograms Under Conformational Relaxation Control / X:
Voltammetry Under Conformational Relxation Control / XI:
Experimental and Theoretical Voltammograms / XII:
Experimental and Theoretical Coulovoltagrams / XIII:
Conducting Polymers as Soft and Nonstoichiometric Materials / XIV:
Electrochemical Evidences
Conducting Polymers as Three-Dimensional Electrodes at Molecular level / XV:
Soft, Wet and Complex Materials Mimicking Biological Processes / XVI:
Technological Applications of the ESCR Model / XVII:
Microwave (Photo)Electrochemistry / H. Tributsch
Theoretical Challenge
Potential Dependent Stationary Microwave Conductivity Measurements
Potential Dependent Time Resolved Measurements
Potential Dependent Periodical Measurements
Oxides and Sensitization Cells
Microwave Phase Measurements
Summary and Discussion
Acknowledgements
Figure Legends
Improvements in Fluorine Generations / G.L. Bauer ; W.V. Childs
A Caution
The Challenge
Pem Fuel Cell Bipolar Plates / D. Bloomfield ; V. Bloomfield
NAFION MEA Based Bipolar Plate Problems
Polybenzimidazole/H[subscript 3]PO[subscript 4]
Definition
Separator Plate
Flow Field
Port and Port Bridges
Seals
Frame
Bipolar Plate Features
Tolerances
Thermal Management
Electrical Conduction
Water Management
Low Cost
Stable, Free from Corrosion Products / 6:
Galvanic Corrosion / i:
Materials and Processes
Comparison of Carbon and Metal
Operational
Forming Cost / ii:
Carbon
Molded Graphite
Paper
Stamped Exfoliated Graphite (Grafoil, Graflex) / iii:
Metal
Forming Metal Bipolar Plates
Intrinsically Corrosion Resistant Metals
Direct Coatings
Conductive Polymer Grafting / iv:
Basic Applications of the Analysis of Variance and Covariance in Electrochemical Science and Engineering / Thomas Z. Fahidy
Basic Principles and Notions
ANOVA: One-way Classification
Completely Randomized Experiment (CRE)
Randomized Block Experiment (RBE)
Example 1: A Historical Perspective of Caustic Soda Production
Example 2: Metallic Corrosion
ANOVA: Two-Way Classification
Null and Alternative Hypotheses
Illustration of Two-Way Classification: Specific Energy Requirement for an Electrolytic Process
ANOVA: Three-Way Classifications
ANOVA: Latin Squares (LS)
Applications of the Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA)
ANCOVA with Velocity as Single Concomitant Variable
Pattern A(CRE)
Pattern B(RBE)
ANCOVA with Velocity and Pressure Drop Acting as Two Concomitant Variables
Two Covariate-Based ANCOVA of Product Yields in a Batch and in a Flow Electrolyzer
Covariance Analysis for a Two-Factor, Single Cofactor CRE
Miscellaneous Topics
Estimation of the Type II Error in ANOVA
Hierarchical Classification
ANOVA-Related Random Effects
Introductory Concepts of Contrasts Analysis
Final Remarks
Acknowledgments
List of Principal Symbols
Nanomaterials in Li-Ion Battery Electrode Design / Charles R. Sides ; Charles R. Martin
Templates Used
Track-Etch Membranes
Alumina Membranes
Other Templates
Nanostructured Cathodic Electrode Materials
Electrode Fabrication
Nanostructured Electrode
Control Electrodes
Structural Investigations
Electrochemical Characterization
Rate Capabilities
Nanostructured Anodic Electrodes
Nanostructured Electrodes
Electrochemical Investigations
Nanoelectrode Applications
Low-Temperature Performance
Strategy
Electrochemical Results
Electronic Conductivity
Cycle Life / v:
Variations on a Synthetic Theme
Nanocomposite of LiFePO[subscript 4]/Carbon
Improving Volumetric Capacity
Carbon Honeycomb
Preparation of Honeycomb Carbon
Direct Methanol Fuel Cells: Fundamentals, Problems and Perspectives / Keith Scott ; Ashok K. Shukla
Operating Principle of the SPE-DMFC
Electrode Reaction Mechanisms in SPE-DMFCs
Anodic Oxidation of Methanol
Cathodic Reduction of Oxygen
Materials for SPE-DMFCS
Catalyst Materials
Anode Catalysts
Oxygen Reduction Catalysts
Membrane Materials
Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Performance
DMFC Stack Performance
Alternative Catalysts and Membranes in the DMFC
Alkaline Conducting Membrane and Alternative Oxidants
Conventional vs. Mixed-Reactant SPE-DMFCs
Mathematical Modelling of the DMFC
Methanol Oxidation
Empirical Models for Cell Voltage Behaviour
Membrane Transport
Effect of Methanol Crossover on Fuel Cell Performance
Mass Transport and Gas Evolution
DMFC Electrode Modelling
Cell Models / 7:
Single Phase Flow / 8:
Two-and Three-Dimensional Modelling / 9:
Dynamics and Modelling / 10:
Stack Hydraulic and Thermal Models / 11:
List of Symbols
Review of Direct Methanol Fuel Cells / Brenda L. Garcia ; John W. Weidner
Anode Kinetics
Reaction Mechanism
Methanol Oxidation Catalysts
Platinum and Platinum Catalyst Structure
Platinum and Platinum Alloy Catalyst Performance
Oxygen Reduction Reaction Catalysts
High Temperature Membranes
Methanol Crossover
Magnitude of Crossover
Effect of CO[subscript 2] Crossover
Mixed-Potential Effects
Novel Membranes to Reduce Methanol Crossover
DMFC Modeling Review
One-Dimensional Models
Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Models
Summary
Direct Numerical Simulation of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell Catalyst Layers / Partha P. Mukherjee ; Guoqing Wang ; Chao-Yang WangChapter 6:
Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) Approach
Advantages and Objectives of the DNS Approach
DNS Model - Idealized 2-D Microstructure
Three-Dimensional Regular Microstructure
2-D Model: Kinetics- vs. Transport-Limited Regimes
Comparison of the Polarization Curves between 2-D and 3-D Simulations
Three-Dimensional Random Microstructure
Random Structure
Structural Analysis and Identification
Governing Equations
Boundary Conditions
DNS Model - Water Transport
Water Transport Mechanism
Mathematical Description
Inlet-Air Humidity Effect
Water Crossover Effect
Optimization of Catalyst Layer Compositions
3-D Correlated Microstructure
Stochastic Generation Method
Governing Equations, Boundary Conditions and Numerical Procedure
Solid State Electrochemistry 1
Electron Transfer Reactions with and without Ion Transfer
Electrosorption Valency and Partial Charge Transfer
Phosphoric Acid Fuel
Cells (PAFCs) for Utilities
Nanostructural Analysis of Bright Metal Surfaces in Relation to their Reflectivity
Electroplating of Metal Matrix Composites by Codeposition of Suspended Particles
Algebraic Properties of Boolean Algebras
Elementary Classification of Boolean Algebras
Constructive Boolean Algebras
Solid State Electrochemistry II: Devices and Techniques / Joachim Maier
Electrochemical Devices and Applications
Electrochemical (Composition) Sensors
Bulk Conductivity Sensor (Mode 1)
Surface Conductivity Sensors (Mode 2)
Galvanic Sensors (Mode 3)
Extension to Acid-Base Active Gases
Electrochemical (Composition) Actors
Electrochemical Energy Storage and Conversion Devices
Fuel Cells
Batteries
Other Storage Devices: Supercapacitors and Photobatteries
Electrochemical Techniques
Determination of Bulk Parameters
Determination of Boundary Parameters
Electrochemical Polarization-The Effect of Selectively Blocking Electrodes
Heuristic Considerations
The Steady-State Response: The Evaluation of Partial Conductivities
The Instationary Behavior: The Evaluation of the Chemical Diffusion Coefficient
Chemically Imposed Gradients
Chemical Polarization and Concentration Cell Experiment
Oxygen Permeation
Zero-Driving Force Method
Chemical Relaxation
Coulometric Titration
Thermodynamic Data from Electrochemical Cells Involving Solid Electrolytes
Modifications in the Evaluation of Electrochemical Measurements Due to Internal Defect Reactions
Dynamic Interactions
Transport in Inhomogeneous, Heterogeneous, and Composite Systems
Related Techniques
Acknowledgment
Appendix 1-Terminal Potential Difference / A:
Appendix 2-Electrochemical Polarization / B:
Appendix 3-Chemical Polarization and Relaxation / C:
Appendix 4-Electrolytic Domain Boundaries / D:
Appendix 5-Coulometric Titration / E:
Appendix 6-Point Electrode Resistance / F:
Symbols
Synthesis and Characterization of Nanoporous Carbon and Its Electrochemical Application to Electrode Material for Supercapacitors / Gyoung-Ja Lee
Preparation of Porous Carbons
Activation Method
Templating Method
Structural Characteristics of Porous Carbons
Types of Adsorption Isotherms and Hysteresis Loops
Determinations of Surface Area and Pore Size Distribution
Fractal Characteristics of Porous Carbons
Molecular Probe Method Using Gas Adsorption
Image Analysis Method
Electrochemical Characteristics of Carbon-Based Porous Electrodes For Supercapacitor: The Uses of AC-Impedance Spectroscopy, Current Transient and Cyclic Voltammetry
General Theory of Electrochemical Behavior of Porous Electrodes
Effect of Geometric Heterogeneity on Ion Penetration into the Pores during Double-Layer Charging/Discharging
Effect of Surface Inhomogeneity on Ion Penetration into the Pores during Double-Layer Charging/Discharging
Concluding Remark
Notation
The Use of Graphs in the Study of Electrochemical Reaction Networks / Joseph D. Fehribach
Reaction Species Graphs
Kinetic Graphs
Bipartite Graphs
Reaction Mechanism Graphs
MCFC Cathodic Reactions
Peroxide Mechanism
Superoxide-Peroxide Mechanism
HER Reactions
Reaction Route Graphs
Discussion: Other Reaction Graphs
Approximate Analytical Solutions for Models of Three-Dimensional Electrodes By Adomian's Decomposition Method / Yan-Ping Sun
Adomian's Decomposition Method (ADM)
Example of Applications to Catalytic reactions
Model Solution
Catalyst Slab
Spherical Catalyst Pellet
Concentration Profiles and Effectiveness
Concentration Profiles
Effectiveness
Application to the Influence of Mass Transport in Electrocatalysts
Internal Diffusion and Film Mass Transport
Agglomerate Model of Electrocatalysis
Application to Models For Three-Dimentional Electrodes
The General Form of Model of Three-Dimension Electrodes
Porous Electrode Reactor
Packed-Bed Electrode Reactor
Simplification of Packed-Bed Electrode with a Low Conversion
Examples of Packed-Bed Electrodes applications
Electrochemical Reduction of Nitrobenzene in a Packed-Bed Electrode Reactor
Direct Electrochemical Oxidation of Propylene in a Sparged Packed-Bed Electrode Reactor
Two-Dimensional Model of Packed-Bed Electrodes
Acknowledgement
ADM's Nomenclature
Nomenclatures in this Paper
ADM Mathematica Codes / Appendix:
ADM to Solve One ODE
ADM to Solve the Coupled ODE's
Some Recent Studies in Ruthenium Electrochemistry and Electrocatalysis / N. S. Marinkovic ; M. B. Vukmirovic ; R. R. Adzic
Preparation of Well-Ordered Ru Single-Crystal Surfaces
Electrochemistry of Single-Crystal Ru surfaces
Voltammetry Characterization
Surface X-Ray Diffraction Study
Infrared Spectroscopy and Anion Adsorption
Polycrystalline Ru Electrode / (i):
Ru(0001) and Ru(1010) Single-Crystal Electrode Surfaces / (ii):
Surface-Oxide Formation
Gas-Phase Oxidation
Electrochemical Oxidation
Electrocatalysis on Ru Single-Crystals and Nanoparticle Surfaces
Hydrogen Oxidation and Evolution Reactions
CO Oxidation
Oxygen Reduction Reaction
Pt-Ru Fuel Cell Electrocatalysts
Pt Submonolayers on Ru Single-Crystal Surfaces
Adsorption Properties of Pt Submonolayers on Ru(0001)
Pt Deposition on Ru Nanoparticles
EXAFS and TEM Characterization
H[subscript 2]/CO Oxidation
Fuel Cell Tests / (iii):
High-Performance Electrodes for Medium-Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells / Hiroyuki Uchida ; Masahiro Watanabe
Characteristics of SOFCs
Development of Medium-Temperature SOFCs
Design Concept of Catalyzed Reaction Layer for Medium-Temperature SOFC
Activation of Mixed-Conducting Ceria-Based Anode
Effect of Various Metal Catalysts Dispersed on Samaria-Doped Ceria
Effect of the Composition and Microstructure on the Performance of SDC Anodes
Activation of SDC Anode with Highly-Dispersed Ni Electrocatalysts
Activation of Mixed-Conducting Perovskite-Type Oxide Cathodes
La(Sr)MnO[subscript 3] Cathode with Highly Dispersed Pt Catalysts
La(Sr)CoO[subscript 3] Cathode with Ceria-Interlayer on Zirconia Electrolyte
Control of Microstructure of LSC Cathodes
Activation of the Optimized LSC Cathode by Loading nm-Sized Pt Catalysts
Effects of Ionic Conductivity of Zirconia Electrolytes on the Polarization Properties of Various Electrodes in SOFCs
Effect of [sigma subscript ion] on the Hydrogen Oxidation Reaction Rate at Porous Pt Anode
Effect of [sigma subscript ion] on Activities of Various Electrodes and the Reaction Mechanism
Electrochemical CO[subscript 2] Reduction on Metal Electrodes / Y. Hori
Fundamental Problems
Reactions Related with CO[subscript 2] Reduction
Electrochemical Equilibria
Equilibria of CO[subscript 2] Related Species in Aqueous Solution
Variation of pH at the Electrode During CO[subscript 2] Reduction
Problems Related with Experimental Procedures and Data Analysis
Difference Current Obtained from Voltammetric Measurements
Purity of the Electrolyte Solution
Overviews of Electrochemical Reduction of CO[subscript 2] at Metal Electrodes
Aqueous Solutions
Nonaqueous Solutions
Methanol, another Nonaqueous Solution
Electrochemical Reduction of CO[subscript 2] in High Concentration
CO[subscript 2] Reduction under Elevated Pressures
CO[subscript 2] Reduction Promoted by High Concentration
Electroactive Species in the Electrochemical Reduction of CO[subscript 2]
Deactivation of Electrocatalytic Activity of Metal Electrodes
Classification of Electrode Metals and Reaction Scheme
Classification of Electrode Metals and CO Selectivity
Electrode Potential of CO[subscript 2] Reduction at Various Metal Electrodes
Formation of CO[subscript 2 middle dot superscript -] Anion Radical and Further Reduction to HCOO[superscript -]
Formation of Adsorbed CO[subscript 2 middle dot superscript -] Leading to Further Reduction to CO or HCOO[superscript -]
Reaction Scheme in Nonaqueous Electrolyte
Electrochemical Reduction of CO[subscript 2] to CO at Selected Metal and Nonmetal Electrodes
CO Formation at Au, Ag, and Zn
Au
Ag
Zn
Platinum Group Metals
Pt
Pd
Other Platinum Group Metals
Ni and other CO Formation Metals
Non-metallic Electrode Materials for CO[subscript 2] Reduction
Mechanistic Studies of Electrochemical Reduction of CO[subscript 2] at Cu Electrode
Formation of CO as an Intermediate Species
CO[subscript 2] Reduction at Cu Electrode Affected by the Potential and the CO[subscript 2] Pressure
Electrolyte Solution, Anionic Species
Effects of Cationic Species in Electrolyte Solution
Reaction Mechanism at Cu Electrode
Surface Treatment, Alloying and Modification of Cu Electrode
CO[subscript 2] Reduction at Cu Single-Crystal Electrodes
Adsorption of CO on Cu Electrode: Voltammetric and Spectroscopic Studies
Attempts to Enhance the Transport Process in CO[subscript 2] Reduction
Elevated Pressure
Gas-Diffusion Electrode
Solid-Polymer Electrolytes
Three-Phase Electrodes
List of Abbreviations
Induced Codeposition of Alloys of Tungsten, Molybdenum and Rhenium with Transition Metals / Noam Eliaz ; Eliezer Gileadi
Metal Deposition as a Class of its Own
Redox Reactions
Metal Deposition and Dissolution
Specific Issues in Electrodeposition of Alloys
History
Special Considerations Related to Alloy Deposition
Anomalous Alloy Deposition
Possible Causes of Anomalous Alloy Deposition / (iv):
Induced Codeposition / (v):
Electroless Deposition of Alloys / (vi):
Case Studies
Tungsten Alloys Containing Ni, Co and Fe
Properties of Tungsten Alloys
Applications of Tungsten Alloys
Electrodeposition of Tungsten Alloys
New Interpretation of the Mechanism of Ni-W Codeposition
Molybdenum Alloys Containing Ni, Co and Fe
Properties of Molybdenum Alloys
Applications of Molybdenum Alloys
Electrodeposition of Molybdenum Alloys
Rhenium and its Alloys
Properties of Rhenium and its Alloys
Applications of Rhenium and its Alloys
Electrodeposition of Rhenium and its Alloys
List of Abbreviations and Symbols
Appendices
25 Years of the Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: 20 Years of Application of STM in Electrochemistry / Marek Szklarczyk ; Marcin Strawski ; Krzysztof Bienkowski
STM Landmarks
Solid-Vacuum Interface STM Investigations
STM Investigations in Air and in Liquid Environment: 20 Years in Electrochemical STM Probing
Imaging of Metals and Metallic Deposits
Imaging of Adsorbed Ions Adlattices
Imaging of Molecules
Imaging of Semiconductive Materials
Electrochemical Fabrication of Nanostructures: Nanolithography
Modern Applications of Electrochemical Technology / M. Schlesinger
LIGA, an Important Process in Micro-System Technology
Micro Systems
The LIGA Process
Microstructures Manufactured by the LIGA Process
The Sacrificial Layer Technique
Microstructures with Different Shapes in the Third Dimension
Applications in Semiconductor Technology
Cu Interconnections on Chips
Deposition of Cu Interconnections on Chips
Diffusion Barriers and Seed Layer
Super-Conformal Electrodeposition of Copper into Nanometer Vias and Trenches
Super-Conformal Electrodeposition
Mechanism of Super-Conformal Electrodeposition
Mathematical Modeling
Information Storage: Applications in the Fields of Magnetism and Microelectronic
Magnetic Information Storage
Read/Write Heads
High Frequency Magnetics
Spintronics
Applications in Medicine and Medical Devices
Background
Electrochemical Power Sources
Electrochemical Deposition in Medical Devices
Surface Electrochemistry in the Processing of Biomaterials
Materials Science of Biomaterials
Frontiers: Various Applications in the Field of Medicine
Preface
List of Contributors
Mathematical Modeling in Electrochemistry / Mordechay Schlesinger
High Precision Atomic Theory: Tests of Fundamental Understanding / G.W.F. Drake ; Qixue Wu ; Zheng Zhong
Modeling of Impedance of Porous Electrodes / Andrzej Lasia
Multiscale Mass Transport in Porous Silicon Gas Sensors / Peter A. Kottke ; Andrei G. Fedorov ; James L. Gole
Electrochemical Materials for PEM Fuel Cells: Insights from Physical Theory and Simulation / Michael H. Eikerling ; Kourosh Malek
Modeling of Catalyst Structure Degradation in PEM Fuel Cells / Jeremy P. Meyers
Modeling Water Management in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells / Adam Z. Weber ; Ryan Balliet ; Haluna P. Gunterman ; John Newman
Adaptive Characterization and Modeling of Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications / Mark W. Verbrugge
Structure, Passivation and localized corrosion of metal surfaces / Vincent Maurice ; Philippe Marcus
Nucleation and Growth of Passive Films
Hydroxide Ion Adsorption and Growth of 2D Passive Layers
Copper
Silver
Nickel
Influence of 2D Passive Films on Dissolution
Structure of 3D Passive Films on Metals and Alloys
Crystalline Passive Films
Iron
Ageing Effects on Chromium-Rich Passive Films
Chromium
Stainless Steels
Dissolution in the Passive State
Nanostructure of Passive Film and Passivity Breakdown
Effect of Chlorides on Coalescence and Crystallization of the Passive Film
Breakdown at Oxide Grain Boundaries
Grain Boundary Model of Passivity Breakdown and Pit Initiation
Local Redistribution of the Potential Drop
Local Thinning of the Passive Film
Voiding at the Metal/Oxide Interface
Stress-Induced Fracture of the Passive Film
Anodic Oxide Films on Aluminum: their significance for corrosion Protection and Micro-and Nano-Technologies / Hideaki Takahashi ; Masatoshi Sakairi ; Tatsuya Kikuchi
Applications of Anodic Oxide Films
Structure and Properties of Oxide and Hydroxide Films
Pretreated-Surface Film
Thermal Oxide Film
Hydroxide Film
Barrier-Type Anodic Oxide Film (BAOF)
Porous Type Anodic Oxide Film (PAOF)
Structure
Growth under Steady Conditions
Growth under Transient Conditions
Changes in Film Structure by Combination of Treatments
Change of PAOF Structure by Heating, Boiling, and Anodizing in a Neutral Solution
Change in BAOF Structure by Heating, Boiling, and Anodizing in an Acid Solution
Change of the Structure of Thermal Oxide Films by Boiling, and Anodizing in a Neutral solution and in an Acid Solution
Changes in the Structure of Hydroxide Films by Heating and Anodizing in Acid and Neutral Solutions
Other Combination of Treatments
Role of Anodic Oxide Films in Corrosion Protection of Aluminum
Immersion of BAOF-Covered Aluminum in a Solution
Role of Anodic Oxide Films in Pitting Corrosion during Cathodic Polarization
Role of Anodic Oxide Films in the Corrosion of Aluminum Alloys in Alcohol at High Temperatures
Micro-and Nano-Technologies Based on Anodized Aluminum
Micro-Technologies with Laser Irradiation
Applications of Laser Irradiation Techniques
Printed Circuit Boards
Plastic Injection Molds
Electrochemical Micro-Reactor
Free-Standing Microstructures
Micro-Actuator
Printing Roll
Micro-and Nano-Patterning with AFM Probe Processing
Formation of Composite Oxide Films by the Combination of Anodizing with Other Coating Methods
Pore-Filling Method
Combination of Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition with Anodizing
Combination of Sol-Gel Dip Coating and Anodizing
Combination of Electrophoretic Sol-Gel Coating and Anodizing
Combination of Liquid Phase Deposition with Anodizing
Applications of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy to Hydrogen Adsorption, Evolution and Absorption into Metals / A. Lasia1:
Electroless Deposition of Metals / D. Djokic2:
Towards a Computational Electrochemistry - a Kineticist's Perspective / L.K. Bieniasz3:
7.

図書

図書
Akira Chiba...[et al.]
出版情報: Amsterdam ; Tokyo : Elsevier, Newnes, 2005  xviii, 381 p. ; 24 cm
所蔵情報: loading…
目次情報: 続きを見る
List of Contributors
Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgements
Introduction / 1:
Magnetic bearing and motor drive / 1.1:
Bearingless drives / 1.2:
Definition and related technologies / 1.3:
Early developments / 1.4:
Bearingless structures / 1.5:
Comparisons / 1.6:
Winding structures / 1.7:
Applications / 1.8:
References
Electro-magnetics and mathematical model of magnetic bearings / 2:
Electro-mechanical structure and operating principles / 2.1:
Electric equivalent circuit and inductance / 2.2:
Stored magnetic energy and force / 2.3:
Radial magnetic bearing / 2.4:
Unbalance pull force / 2.5:
Block diagram and mechanical system / 2.6:
Reference
Magnetic bearing controllers / 3:
Design principles in one-axis magnetic suspension / 3.1:
Adjustment of PID gains / 3.2:
Interference in two perpendicular axes / 3.3:
Unbalance force and elimination / 3.4:
Eccentric displacement / 3.5:
Synchronized displacement suppression / 3.6:
Mechanical dynamics / 4:
Two-axis system / 4.1:
Four-axis and five-axis systems / 4.2:
Thrust magnetic bearing and requirement of five-axis suspension / 4.3:
Power electronic circuits for magnetic bearings / 5:
Structure and principles of power electronic circuits / 5.1:
PWM operation / 5.2:
Current feedback / 5.3:
Current driver operating area / 5.4:
Power devices and gate drive circuits / 5.5:
Primitive model and control strategy of bearingless motors / 6:
Principles of radial force generation / 6.1:
Two-pole bearingless motor / 6.2:
MMF and permeance / 6.3:
Magnetic potential and flux distribution / 6.4:
Inductance matrix / 6.5:
Radial force and current / 6.6:
The dc excitation of the primitive bearingless motor / 6.7:
AC excitation and revolving magnetic field / 6.8:
Inductance measurements / 6.9:
Analysis in rotational coordinates and magnetic suspension strategy for bearingless drives with 2-pole and 4-pole windings / 7:
Vector control theory of electrical motors / 7.1:
Coordinate transformation and torque regulation / 7.2:
Vector control theory in bearingless motors / 7.3:
Coordinate transformation from dc to ac bearingless machines / 7.4:
System block diagrams of bearingless machines / 7.5:
Field orientation, VA requirement and magnetic saturation / 8:
Misalignment of field orientation / 8.1:
VA requirement / 8.2:
Magnetic saturation / 8.3:
Cylindrical permanent magnet synchronous bearingless motors / 9:
Structure of surface permanent magnet (SPM) rotor / 9.1:
Radial suspension force and suspension winding current / 9.2:
Equations of voltage and current / 9.3:
Guideline for permanent magnet thickness and airgap length / 9.4:
Irreversible permanent magnet demagnetization and MMF limitations of stator windings / 9.5:
Control system configuration / 9.6:
Inset types of permanent magnet bearingless motor / 10:
Structure and features of an inset type of permanent magnet rotor / 10.1:
Mutual interference between radial suspension forces / 10.2:
Rotor position control strategy / 10.3:
Identification of suspension force parameters / 10.4:
Buried permanent magnet bearingless motors / 11:
BPM rotor structures / 11.1:
Suspension force for unity current and permanent magnet demagnetization / 11.2:
Synchronous reluctance bearingless motors / 11.3:
Torque characteristics / 12.1:
Radial force characteristics / 12.2:
Drive systems / 12.3:
Bearingless induction motors / 13:
Rotor structure and suspension force / 13.1:
Indirect type drives / 13.2:
Direct type drives / 13.3:
Two-pole motor drive / 13.4:
Homopolar, hybrid and consequent-pole bearingless motors / 14:
Structures and principles / 14.1:
Number of poles / 14.2:
Switched reluctance bearingless motors / 14.3:
Configuration of stator windings and principles of suspension force generation / 15.1:
Derivation of inductances / 15.2:
Assumption and calculation of permeances / 15.3:
Theoretical formulae of suspension force and torque / 15.4:
A drive system / 15.5:
A feed-forward compensator for vibration reduction considering magnetic attraction force / 15.6:
Winding arrangement variations / 16:
Modified radial magnetic bearings / 16.1:
Modified motors / 16.2:
p-Pole and (p [plus or minus] 2)-pole windings / 16.3:
Mechanical structure and position regulation / 17:
Mechanical structure / 17.1:
Axial gap bearingless motors / 17.2:
Displacement sensors and sensorless operation / 18:
Principles of displacement sensor / 18.1:
Improvements in sensitivity / 18.2:
Inductive and eddy current sensors / 18.3:
Sensorless bearingless motor / 18.4:
Controllers and power electronics / 19:
Structure of digital controllers / 19.1:
Discrete-time systems of PID controllers with the z-transform / 19.2:
Design procedure and examples / 20:
An induction type bearingless motor / 20.1:
A permanent magnet type bearingless motor / 20.2:
Applications and test machines / 21:
Canned pumps and drives / 21.1:
Compact pumps, bubble bed reactor / 21.2:
Spindle motor and semiconductor processing / 21.3:
Index
List of Contributors
Foreword
Preface
8.

図書

東工大
目次DB

図書
東工大
目次DB
Hidetoshi Nishimori
出版情報: Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2001  xii, 243 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: The international series of monographs on physics ; 111
所蔵情報: loading…
目次情報: 続きを見る
1 Mean-field theory of phase transitions 1
   1.1 Ising model 1
   1.2 Order parameter and phase transition 3
   1.3 Mean-field theory 4
   1.3.1 Mean-field Hamiltonian 4
   1.3.2 Equation of state 5
   1.3.3 Free energy and the Landau theory 6
   1.4 Infinite-range model 7
   1.5 Variational approach 9
2 Mean-field theory of spin glasses 11
   2.1 Spin glass and the Edwards-Anderson model 11
   2.1.1 Edwards-Anderson model 12
   2.1.2 Quenched system and configurational average 12
   2.1.3 Replica method 13
   2.2 Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model 13
   2.2.1 SK model 14
   2.2.2 Replica average of the partition function 14
   2.2.3 Reduction by Gaussian integral 15
   2.2.4 Steepest descent 15
   2.2.5 Order parameters 16
   2.3 Replica-symmetric solution 17
   2.3.1 Equations of state 17
   2.3.2 Phase diagram 19
   2.3.3 Negative entropy 21
3 Replica symmetry breaking 23
   3.1 Stability of replica-symmetric solution 23
   3.1.1 Hessian 24
   3.1.2 Eigenvalues of the Hessian and the AT line 26
   3.2 Replica symmetry breaking 27
   3.2.1 Parisi solution 28
   3.2.2 First-step RSB 29
   3.2.3 Stability of the first-step RSB 31
   3.3 Full RSB solution 31
   3.3.1 Physical quantities 31
   3.3.2 Order parameter near the critical point 32
   3.3.3 Vertical phase boundary 33
   3.4 Physical significance of RSB 35
   3.4.1 Multivalley structure 35
   3.4.2 qEA and q 35
   3.4.3 Distribution of overlaps 36
   3.4.4 Replica representation of the order parameter 37
   3.4.5 Ultrametricity 38
   3.5 TAP equation 38
   3.5.1 TAP equation 39
   3.5.2 Cavity method 41
   3.5.3 Properties of the solution 43
4 Gauge theory of spin glasses 46
   4.1 Phase diagram of finite-dimensional systems 46
   4.2 Gauge transformation 47
   4.3 Exact solution for the internal energy 48
   4.3.1 Application of gauge transformation 48
   4.3.2 Exact internal energy 49
   4.3.3 Relation with the phase diagram 50
   4.3.4 Distribution of the local energy 51
   4.3.5 Distribution of the local field 51
   4.4 Bound on the specific heat 52
   4.5 Bound on the free energy and internal energy 53
   4.6 Correlation functions 55
   4.6.1 Identities 55
   4.6.2 Restrictions on the phase diagram 57
   4.6.3 Distribution of order parameters 58
   4.6.4 Non-monotonicity of spin configurations 61
   4.7 Entropy of frustration 62
   4.8 Modified ±J model 63
   4.8.1 Expectation value of physical quantities 63
   4.8.2 Phase diagram 64
   4.8.3 Existence of spin glass phase 65
   4.9 Gauge glass 67
   4.9.1 Energy, specific heat, and correlation 67
   4.9.2 Chirality 69
   4.9.3 XY spin glass 70
   4.10 Dynamical correlation function 71
5 Error-correcting codes 74
   5.1 Error-correcting codes 74
   5.1.1 Transmission of information 74
   5.1.2 Similarity to spin glasses 75
   5.1.3 Shannon bound 76
   5.1.4 Finite-temperature decoding 78
   5.2 Spin glass representation 78
   5.2.1 Conditional probability 78
   5.2.2 Bayes formula 79
   5.2.3 MAP and MPM 80
   5.2.4 Gaussian channel 81
   5.3 Overlap 81
   5.3.1 Measure of decoding performance 81
   5.3.2 Upper bound on the overlap 82
   5.4 Infinite-range model 83
   5.4.1 Infinite-range model 84
   5.4.2 Replica calculations 84
   5.4.3 Replica-symmetric solution 86
   5.4.4 Overlap 87
   5.5 Replica symmetry breaking 88
   5.5.1 First-step RSB 88
   5.5.2 Random energy model 89
   5.5.3 Replica solution in the limit γ→∞ 91
   5.5.4 Solution for finite γ 93
   5.6 Codes with finite connectivity 95
   5.6.1 Sourlas-type code with finite connectivity 95
   5.6.2 Low-density parity-check code 98
   5.6.3 Cryptography 101
   5.7 Convolutional code 102
   5.7.1 Definition and examples 102
   5.7.2 Generating polynomials 103
   5.7.3 Recursive convolutional code 104
   5.8 Turbo code 106
   5.9 CDMA multiuser demodulator 108
   5.9.1 Basic idea of CDMA 108
   5.9.2 Conventional and Bayesian demodulators 110
   5.9.3 Replica analysis of the Bayesian demodulator 111
   5.9.4 Performance comparison 114
6 Image restoration 116
   6.1 Stochastic approach to image restoration 116
   6.1.1 Binary image and Bayesian inference 116
   6.1.2 MAP and MPM 117
   6.1.3 Overlap 118
   6.2 Infinite-range model 119
   6.2.1 Replica calculations 119
   6.2.2 Temperature dependence of the overlap 121
   6.3 Simulation 121
   6.4 Mean-field annealing 122
   6.4.1 Mean-field approximation 123
   6.4.2 Annealing 124
   6.5 Edges 125
   6.6 Parameter estimation 128
7 Associative memory 131
   7.1 Associative memory 131
   7.1.1 Model neuron 131
   7.1.2 Memory and stable fixed point 132
   7.1.3 Statistical mechanics of the random Ising model 133
   7.2 Embedding a finite number of patterns 135
   7.2.1 Free energy and equations of state 135
   7.2.2 Solution of the equation of state 136
   7.3 Many patterns embedded 138
   7.3.1 Replicated partition function 138
   7.3.2 Non-retrieved patterns 138
   7.3.3 Free energy and order parameter 140
   7.3.4 Replica-symmetric solution 141
   7.4 Self-consistent signal-to-noise analysis 142
   7.4.1 Stationary state of an analogue neuron 142
   7.4.2 Separation of signal and noise 143
   7.4.3 Equation of state 145
   7.4.4 Binary neuron 145
   7.5 Dynamics 146
   7.5.1 Synchronous dynamics 147
   7.5.2 Time evolution of the overlap 147
   7.5.3 Time evolution of the variance 148
   7.5.4 Limit of applicability 150
   7.6 Perceptron and volume of connections 151
   7.6.1 Simple perceptron 151
   7.6.2 Perceptron learning 152
   7.6.3 Capacity of a perceptron 153
   7.6.4 Replica representation 154
   7.6.5 Replica-symmetric solution 155
8 Learning in perceptron 158
   8.1 Learning and generalization error 158
   8.1.1 Learning in perceptron 158
   8.1.2 Generalization error 159
   8.2 Batch learning 161
   8.2.1 Bayesian formulation 162
   8.2.2 Learning algorithms 163
   8.2.3 High-temperature and annealed approximations 165
   8.2.4 Gibbs algorithm 166
   8.2.5 Replica calculations 167
   8.2.6 Generalization error at T=0 169
   8.2.7 Noise and unlearnable rules 170
   8.3 On-line learning 171
   8.3.1 Learning algorithms 171
   8.3.2 Dynamics of learning 172
   8.3.3 Generalization errors for specific algorithms 173
   8.3.4 Optimization of learning rate 175
   8.3.5 Adaptive learning rate for smooth cost function 176
   8.3.6 Learning with query 178
   8.3.7 On-line learning of unlearnable rule 179
9 Optimization problems 183
   9.1 Combinatorial optimization and statistical mechanics 183
   9.2 Number partitioning problem 184
   9.2.1 Definition 184
   9.2.2 Subset sum 185
   9.2.3 Number of configurations for subset sum 185
   9.2.4 Number partitioning problem 187
   9.3 Graph partitioning problem 188
   9.3.1 Definition 188
   9.3.2 Cost function 189
   9.3.3 Replica expression 190
   9.3.4 Minimum of the cost function 191
   9.4 Knapsack problem 192
   9.4.1 Knapsack problem and linear programming 192
   9.4.2 Relaxation method 193
   9.4.3 Replica calculations 193
   9.5 Satisfiability problem 195
   9.5.1 Random satisfiability problem 195
   9.5.2 Statistical-mechanical formulation 196
   9.5.3 Replica-symmetric solution and its interpretation 199
   9.6 Simulated annealing 201
   9.6.1 Simulated annealing 202
   9.6.2 Annealing schedule and generalized transition probability 203
   9.6.3 Inhomogeneous Markov chain 204
   9.6.4 Weak ergodicity 206
   9.6.5 Relaxation of the cost function 209
   9.7 Diffusion in one dimension 211
   9.7.1 Diffusion and relaxation in one dimension 211
A Eigenvalues of the Hessian 214
   A.1 Eigenvalue 1 214
   A.2 Eigenvalue 2 215
   A.3 Eigenvalue 3 216
B Parisi equation 217
C Channel coding theorem 220
   C.1 Information, uncertainty, and entropy 220
   C.2 Channel capacity 221
   C.3 BSC and Gaussian channel 223
   C.4 Typical sequence and random coding 224
   C.5 Channel coding theorem 226
D Distribution and free energy of K-SAT 228
References 232
Index 241
1 Mean-field theory of phase transitions 1
   1.1 Ising model 1
   1.2 Order parameter and phase transition 3
9.

図書

図書
Atelier Bow-Wow, Yoshiharu Tsukamoto, Momoyo Kaijima ; [editors, Ian Luna & Lauren A. Gould]
出版情報: New York : Rizzoli, c2010  360 p. ; 30 cm
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10.

図書

図書
石川忠晴著 ; 肖锋, 贺达, 高爽翻译
出版情報: [東京] : 東京工業大学出版会 , 東京 : 工学図書 (発売), 2011.6  x, 185p ; 21cm
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