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1.

電子ブック

EB
Brading, Katherine Brading, Elena Castellani
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Copyright acknowledgements
List of contributors
Introduction / 1:
Continuous Symmetries / Part I:
Classic texts: extracts from Weyl and Wigner / 2:
Review paper: On the significance of continuous symmetry to the foundations of physics / C. Martin3:
The philosophical roots of the gauge principle: Weyl and transcendental phenomenological idealism / T. Ryckman4:
Symmetries and Noether's theorems / K. A. Brading ; H. R. Brown5:
General covariance, gauge theories, and the Kretschmann objection / J. Norton6:
The interpretation of gauge symmetry / M. Redhead7:
Tracking down gauge: an ode to the constrained Hamiltonian formalism / J. Earman8:
Time-dependent symmetries: the link between gauge symmetries and indeterminism / D. Wallace9:
A fourth way to the Aharanov-Bohm effect / A. Nounou10:
Discrete Symmetries / Part II:
Classic texts: extracts from Lebniz / Kant ; Black11:
Review paper: Understanding permutation symmetry / S. French ; D. Rickles12:
Quarticles and the identity of discernibles / N. Hugget13:
Review paper: Handedness, parity violation, and the reality of space / O. Pooley14:
Mirror symmetry: what is it for a relational space to be orientable? / N. Huggett15:
Physics and Leibniz's principles / S. Saunders16:
Symmetry Breaking: 17: Classic texts: extracts from Curie and Weyl / Part III:
Extract from G. Jona-Lasinio: Cross-fertilization in theoretical physics: the case of condensed matter and particle physics / G. Jona-Lasinio18:
Review paper: On the meaning of symmetry breaking / E. Castellani19:
Rough guide to spontaneous symmetry breaking / 20:
Spontaneous symmetry breaking: theoretical arguments and philosophical problems / M. Morrison21:
General Interpretative Issues / Part IV:
Classic texts: extracts from Wigner / 22:
Symmetry as a guide to superfluous theoretical structure / J. Ismael ; B. van Fraassen23:
Notes on symmetries / G. Belot24:
Symmetry, objectivity, and design / P. Kosso25:
Symmetry and equivalence / 26:
Preface
Copyright acknowledgements
List of contributors
2.

電子ブック

EB
K. Nagamine
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Leiden : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
List of abbreviations
What are muons? What is muon science? / 1:
Muon sources / 2:
Muons inside condensed matter / 3:
The muonic atom and its formation in matter / 4:
Muon catalyzed fusion / 5:
Muon spin rotation/relaxation/resonance: basic principles / 6:
Muon spin rotation/relaxation/resonance: probing microscopic magnetic properties / 7:
Muon spin rotation/relaxation/resonance: probing induced microscopic systems in condensed matter / 8:
Cosmic-ray muon probes for internal structure of geological-scale materials / 9:
Future trends in muon science Further reading / 10:
Index
Future trends in muon science
Further reading
Preface
List of abbreviations
What are muons? What is muon science? / 1:
3.

電子ブック

EB
Holger Kantz, Thomas Schreiber
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Acknowledgements
Basic Topics / Part I:
Introduction: why nonlinear methods? / 1:
Linear tools and general considerations / 2:
Phase space methods / 3:
Determinism and predictability / 4:
Instability: Lyapunov exponents / 5:
Self-similarity: dimensions / 6:
Using nonlinear methods when determinism is weak / 7:
Selected nonlinear phenomena / 8:
Advanced Topics / Part II:
Advanced embedding methods / 9:
Chaotic data and noise / 10:
More about invariant quantities / 11:
Modelling and forecasting / 12:
Non-stationary signals / 13:
Coupling and synchronisation of nonlinear systems / 14:
Chaos control / 15:
Using the TISEAN programs / Appendix A:
Description of the experimental data sets / Appendix B:
References
Index
Preface
Acknowledgements
Basic Topics / Part I:
4.

電子ブック

EB
Sverre Aarseth
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
The N-body problem / 1:
Predictor-corrector methods / 2:
Neighbour treatments / 3:
Two-body regularization / 4:
Multiple regularization / 5:
Tree codes / 6:
Program organization / 7:
Initial setup / 8:
Decision-making / 9:
Neighbour schemes / 10:
Two-body algorithms / 11:
Chain procedures / 12:
Accuracy and performance / 13:
Practical aspects / 14:
Star clusters / 15:
Galaxies / 16:
Planetary systems / 17:
Small-N experiments / 18:
Global regularization algorithms / Appendix A:
Chain algorithms / Appendix B:
High-order systems / Appendix C:
Practical algorithms / Appendix D:
KS procedures with GRAPE / Appendix E:
Alternative simulation method / Appendix F:
Table of symbols / Appendix G:
Hermite integration method / Appendix H:
References
Index
Preface
The N-body problem / 1:
Predictor-corrector methods / 2:
5.

電子ブック

EB
Jean-Louis Barrat, Jean-Pierre Hansen
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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An introduction to liquid matter / 1:
Thermodynamics, Structure and Fluctuations / Part I:
A reminder of thermodynamics / 2:
Equilibrium fluctuations / 3:
Phase Transitions / Part II:
Mean field approaches / 4:
Critical fluctuations and scaling / 5:
Interfaces and Inhomogeneous Fluids / Part III:
Macroscopic description of interfaces / 6:
The density functional approach / 7:
Curvature and fluctuations / 8:
Dynamics / Part IV:
Phenomenological description of transport processes / 9:
Brownian motion, diffusion and the Langevin equation / 10:
Response and correlation functions / 11:
Slow relaxations / 12:
Slow relaxations.
An introduction to liquid matter / 1:
Thermodynamics, Structure and Fluctuations / Part I:
A reminder of thermodynamics / 2:
6.

電子ブック

EB
Dieter Biskamp
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Introduction / 1:
Magnetohydrodynamics / 2:
Transition to turbulence / 3:
Macroscopic turbulence theory / 4:
Spectral properties and phenomenology / 5:
Two-point-closure theory / 6:
Intermittency / 7:
Two-dimensional turbulence / 8:
Compressible turbulence and turbulent convection / 9:
Turbulence in the solar wind / 10:
Turbulence in accretion disks / 11:
Interstellar turbulence / 12:
References
Index
Preface
Introduction / 1:
Magnetohydrodynamics / 2:
7.

電子ブック

EB
Yasunori Fujii, Kei-ichi Maeda, Kei-ichiro Maeda, Keiichi Maeda
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Conventions and notation
Introduction / 1:
The prototype Brans-Dicke model / 2:
Conformal transformation / 1.1:
What is the scalar-tensor theory of gravitation?
Cosmology with Π / 4:
Where does the scalar field come from? / 5:
Models of an accelerating universe
Quantum effects / 1.2.1:
The scalar field arising from the size of compactified internal space
Appendices
References / 1.2.2:
Index
The dilaton from string theory
The scalar field in a brane world / 1.2.3:
The scalar field in the assumed two-sheeted structure of space-time / 1.2.4:
Comments / 1.3:
The weak equivalence principle / 1.3.1:
The value of [omega] and mass of the scalar field / 1.3.2:
Mach's principle and Dirac's suggestion for time-dependent G / 1.3.3:
Does the scalar-tensor theory have any advantage over simple scalar theories? / 1.3.5:
The Lagrangian / 2.1:
Field equations / 2.2:
The weak-field approximation / 2.3:
The parameterized post-Newtonian approximation / 2.4:
A spinor field as matter / 2.5:
The mechanism of mixing / 2.6:
What is a conformal transformation? / 3.1:
Nonminimal coupling / 3.2:
Coupling to matter / 3.3:
The geodesic in the E frame / 3.4:
Cosmology with [Lambda]
How has the cosmological constant re-emerged? / 4.1:
The standard theory with [Lambda] / 4.2:
The prototype BD model without [Lambda] / 4.3:
The prototype BD model with [Lambda] / 4.4:
Solution in the J frame / 4.4.1:
Solution in the E frame / 4.4.2:
A proposed revision and remarks / 4.4.3:
Dark energy / 5.1:
Quintessence / 5.2:
Quintessence in the brane world / 5.3:
A scalar field in the brane world / 5.3.1:
Scalar-tensor theory / 5.3.2:
Hesitation behavior / 5.4.1:
A two-scalar model / 5.4.2:
Qualitative features unique to the two-scalar model / 5.4.3:
Scale invariance / 6.1:
The dilaton as a Nambu-Goldstone boson / 6.2:
The contribution from loops / 6.3:
The coupling to matter of [sigma], a self-coupled scalar field / 6.3.1:
The coupling to matter of [sigma], scalar QED / 6.3.2:
Non-Newtonian gravity / 6.4:
A consequence of the suspected occurrence of the scalar field in the Maxwell term / 6.5:
Time-variability of the fine-structure constant / 6.6:
Electromagnetic coupling of [Phi subscript *] / 6.6.1:
The behavior of the scalar field / 6.6.2:
The scalar field from Kaluza-Klein theory / Appendix A:
The curvature scalar from the assumed two-sheeted space-time / Appendix B:
The field equation of gravity in the presence of nonminimal coupling / Appendix C:
The law of conservation of matter / Appendix D:
Eddington's parameters / Appendix E:
Conformal transformation of a spinor field / Appendix F:
Conformal transformation of the curvature scalar / Appendix G:
A special choice for conformal invariance / Appendix H:
The matter energy-momentum nonconservation law in the E frame / Appendix J:
A modification to the [Lambda] term / Appendix K:
Einstein's equation in the brane world / Appendix L:
Dilatation current / Appendix M:
Loop integrals in continuous dimensions / Appendix N:
A conformal frame in which particle masses are finally constant / Appendix O:
Cosmology with ?
Preface
Conventions and notation
Introduction / 1:
8.

電子ブック

EB
Efthimios Kaxiras
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgments
Crystalline Solids / Part I:
Crystalline solids / 1:
Atomic structure of crystals
The single-particle approximation / 2:
Electrons in crystal potential / 3:
Building crystals from atoms / 4:
Band structure of crystals
Applications of band theory / 1.1.1:
Atoms with no valence electrons
Lattice vibrations / 6:
Atoms with s valence electrons / 7:
Magnetic behaviour of solids
Superconductivity / 1.1.3:
Atoms with s and p valence electrons
Defects, Non-Crystalline Solids and Finite Structures / Part II:
Atoms with s and d valence electrons / 9:
Defects I: point defects
Defects II: line defects / 1.1.5:
Atoms with s, d and f valence electrons
Defects III: surfaces and interfaces / 11:
Solids with two types of atoms / 12:
Non-crystalline solids
Finite structures / 1.1.7:
Hydrogen: a special one-s-valence-electron atom
Appendices / Part III:
Solids with many types of atoms / A. Elements of classical electrodynamics:
Elements of quantum mechanics / B:
Bonding in solids / C:
Elements of thermodynamics
Further reading / D:
Elements of statistical mechanics
Problems / E:
Elements of elasticity theory
The Madelung energy / F:
Mathematical tools / G:
The hamiltonian of the solid / H:
Nobel Prize citations
Units and symbols / 2.2:
The Hartree and Hartree--Fock approximations
References
Index / 2.2.1:
The Hartree approximation
Example of a variational calculation / 2.2.2:
The Hartree--Fock approximation / 2.2.3:
Hartree--Fock theory of free electrons / 2.3:
The hydrogen molecule / 2.4:
Density Functional Theory / 2.5:
Electrons as quasiparticles / 2.6:
Quasiparticles and collective excitations / 2.6.1:
Thomas--Fermi screening / 2.6.2:
The ionic potential / 2.7:
Periodicity--Bloch states / 3.1:
k-space--Brillouin zones / 3.2:
Dynamics of crystal electrons / 3.3:
Crystal electrons in an electric field / 3.4:
Crystal symmetries beyond periodicity / 3.5:
Groups and symmetry operators / 3.6:
Symmetries of the band structure / 3.7:
Symmetries of 3D crystals / 3.8:
Special k-points / 3.9:
The tight-binding approximation / 4.1:
Example: 1D linear chain with s or p orbitals / 4.1.1:
Example: 2D square lattice with s and p orbitals / 4.1.2:
Generalizations of the TBA / 4.1.3:
General band-structure methods / 4.2:
Band structure of representative solids / 4.3:
A 2D solid: graphite--a semimetal / 4.3.1:
3D covalent solids: semiconductors and insulators / 4.3.2:
3D metallic solids / 4.3.3:
Density of states / 5.1:
Tunneling at metal--semiconductor contact / 5.2:
Optical excitations / 5.3:
Conductivity and dielectric function / 5.4:
Excitons / 5.5:
Energetics and dynamics / 5.6:
The total energy / 5.6.1:
Forces and dynamics / 5.6.2:
Phonon modes / 6.1:
The force-constant model / 6.2:
Example: phonons in 2D periodic chain / 6.2.1:
Phonons in a 3D crystal / 6.2.2:
Phonons as harmonic oscillators / 6.3:
Application: the specific heat of crystals / 6.4:
The classical picture / 6.4.1:
The quantum mechanical picture / 6.4.2:
The Debye model / 6.4.3:
Thermal expansion coefficient / 6.4.4:
Application: phonon scattering / 6.5:
Phonon scattering processes / 6.5.1:
The Debye-Waller factor / 6.5.2:
The Mossbauer effect / 6.5.3:
Magnetic behavior of solids
Magnetic behavior of insulators / 7.1:
Magnetic behavior of metals / 7.2:
Magnetization in Hartree-Fock free-electron gas / 7.2.1:
Magnetization of band electrons / 7.2.2:
Heisenberg spin model / 7.3:
Ground state of the Heisenberg ferromagnet / 7.3.1:
Spin waves in the Heisenberg ferromagnet / 7.3.2:
Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin model / 7.3.3:
Magnetic order in real materials / 7.4:
Crystal electrons in an external magnetic field / 7.5:
de Haas-van Alphen effect / 7.5.1:
Classical and quantum Hall effects / 7.5.2:
Overview of superconducting behavior / 8.1:
Thermodynamics of the superconducting transition / 8.2:
BCS theory of superconductivity / 8.3:
Cooper pairing / 8.3.1:
BCS ground state / 8.3.2:
BCS theory at finite temperature / 8.3.3:
The McMillan formula for T[subscript c] / 8.3.4:
High-temperature superconductors / 8.4:
Defects, non-crystalline solids and finite structures / II:
Intrinsic point defects / 9.1:
Energetics and electronic levels / 9.1.1:
Defect-mediated diffusion / 9.1.2:
Extrinsic point defects / 9.2:
Impurity states in semiconductors / 9.2.1:
Effect of doping in semiconductors / 9.2.2:
The p-n junction / 9.2.3:
Metal-semiconductor junction / 9.2.4:
Nature of dislocations / 10.1:
Elastic properties and motion of dislocations / 10.2:
Stress and strain fields / 10.2.1:
Elastic energy / 10.2.2:
Peierls-Nabarro model / 10.2.3:
Brittle versus ductile behavior / 10.3:
Stress and strain under external load / 10.3.1:
Brittle fracture - Griffith criterion / 10.3.2:
Ductile response - Rice criterion / 10.3.3:
Dislocation-defect interactions / 10.3.4:
Defects III: Surfaces and interfaces
Experimental study of surfaces / 11.1:
Surface reconstruction / 11.2:
Dimerization: the Si(001) surface / 11.2.1:
Relaxation: the GaAs(110) surface / 11.2.2:
Adatoms and passivation: the Si(111) surface / 11.2.3:
Growth phenomena / 11.3:
Interfaces / 11.4:
Grain boundaries / 11.4.1:
Hetero-interfaces / 11.4.2:
Quasicrystals / 12.1:
Amorphous solids / 12.2:
Continuous random network / 12.2.1:
Radial distribution function / 12.2.2:
Electron localization due to disorder / 12.2.3:
Polymers / 12.3:
Structure of polymer chains and solids / 12.3.1:
The glass and rubber states / 12.3.2:
Clusters / 13.1:
Metallic clusters / 13.1.1:
Carbon clusters / 13.1.2:
Carbon nanotubes / 13.1.3:
Other covalent and mixed clusters / 13.1.4:
Biological molecules and structures / 13.2:
The structure of DNA and RNA / 13.2.1:
The structure of proteins / 13.2.2:
Relationship between DNA, RNA and proteins / 13.2.3:
Protein structure and function / 13.2.4:
Elements of classical electrodynamics / III:
Electrostatics and magnetostatics / A.1:
Fields in polarizable matter / A.2:
Electrodynamics / A.3:
Electromagnetic radiation / A.4:
The Schrodinger equation / Appendix B:
Bras, kets and operators / B.2:
Solution of the TISE / B.3:
Free particles / B.3.1:
Harmonic oscillator potential / B.3.2:
Coulomb potential / B.3.3:
Spin angular momentum / B.4:
Stationary perturbation theory / B.5:
Non-degenerate perturbation theory / B.5.1:
Degenerate perturbation theory / B.5.2:
Time-dependent perturbation theory / B.6:
The electromagnetic field term / B.7:
The laws of thermodynamics / Appendix C:
Thermodynamic potentials / C.2:
Application: phase transitions / C.3:
Average occupation numbers / Appendix D:
Classical Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics / D.1.1:
Quantum Fermi-Dirac statistics / D.1.2:
Quantum Bose-Einstein statistics / D.1.3:
Ensemble theory / D.2:
Definition of ensembles / D.2.1:
Derivation of thermodynamics / D.2.2:
Applications of ensemble theory / D.3:
Equipartition and the Virial / D.3.1:
Ideal gases / D.3.2:
Spins in an external magnetic field / D.3.3:
The strain tensor / Appendix E:
The stress tensor / E.2:
Stress-strain relations / E.3:
Strain energy density / E.4:
Applications of elasticity theory / E.5:
Isotropic elastic solid / E.5.1:
Plane strain / E.5.2:
Solid with cubic symmetry / E.5.3:
Potential of a gaussian function / Appendix F:
The Ewald method / F.2:
Differential operators / Appendix G:
Power series expansions / G.2:
Functional derivatives / G.3:
Fourier and inverse Fourier transforms / G.4:
The [delta]-function and its Fourier transform / G.5:
The [delta]-function and the [theta]-function / G.5.1:
Fourier transform of the [delta]-function / G.5.2:
The [delta]-function sums for crystals / G.5.3:
Normalized gaussians / G.6:
Nobel prize citations / Appendix H:
Preface
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgments
9.

電子ブック

EB
T. J. M. Boyd, J. J. Sanderson, Jeffrey John Sanderson
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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Preface
Introduction / 1:
Particle orbit theory / 2:
Macroscopic equations / 3:
Ideal magnetohydrodynamics / 4:
Resistive magnetohydrodynamics / 5:
Waves in unbounded homogeneous plasmas / 6:
Collisionless kinetic theory / 7:
Collisional kinetic theory / 8:
Plasma radiation / 9:
Non-linear plasma physics / 10:
Aspects of inhomogeneous plasmas / 11:
The classical theory of plasmas / 12:
Appendices
References
Index
Preface
Introduction / 1:
Particle orbit theory / 2:
10.

電子ブック

EB
R. J. Beerends, H. G. ter Morsche, E. M. van de Vrie, J. C. van den Berg
出版情報: Cambridge University Press Online Books , Leiden : Cambridge University Press, 2003
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