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東工大
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図書
東工大
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Michihiko Esaki
出版情報: Livonia, Mich. : ASI Press, c2002  xxxxiv, 920 p. ; 28 cm
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Preface to the English Edition
Preface to Japanese language Edition (1997)
I. Problem Areas in Existing Thinking Methodology and Management Methodology
II. What are the characteristics of the thinking and procedures appearing in this book?
III. How the Japanese version of this book was published
IV. The Application and Structure of this book
V. The Pupose Measure Relationship of the DTCN/DTC Methodology
Acknowledgements (1984, 1997, 2001)
Prologue (A Way Of Thinking And Recognition) 1
   1.1 Introduction 4
   1.1.1 The Birth of the Methodology And Its Background 4
   1.1.2 The purpose of the methodology 5
   1.1.3 Scope of the methodology 11
   1.1.4 The structure of the book 12
   1.2 Decision Mechanism using Information of Difference 23
   1.2.1 Introduction 23
   1.2.2 Decision-making in a simple example 24
   1.2.3 How to create a Purpose-Measure Diagram, which shows the direction of value for decision-making 25
   1.2.4 Necessary conditions for making decisions in management 28
   1.2.5 Persuasive Forecast 30
   1.2.6 A Method for easily identifying the information of difference 31
   1.2.7 Card-making for comparing information 32
   1.2.8 Purpose-Method Diagram for the maintenance of standard man-hours 33
   1.2.9 Summary 33
   1.3 Proper Use of Questioning for Creative Thinking and Decision-Making - Effective Use of the Questions "In order to do what?", "How to do?" and "Why" - 46
   1.3.1 Understanding the difference between the questions "In order to do what?" "How to do?" and "Why?" 46
   1.3.2 Proper use of the questions "In order to do what?" "How to do?" and "Why?" 46
   1.3.3 Proper use of "Why?" questin 47
   1.3.4 The "because" theory 48
   1.3.5 The effect and evaluation of the methodology 49
   1.4 Way of Thinking and Policy of DTCN/DTC 52
Chapter 2 Seven Basic Methods of DTCN 53
   2.1 PMD (Purpose-Measure Diagram) Method to Clarify the Relationship between Purpose and Measures (alias the Method of Key Word) 58
   2.1.1 Introduction 58
   2.1.2 Procedure 58
   2.1.3 Supplementary notes 60
   2.1.4 Examples 61
   2.1.5 Considerations 62
   2.1.6 Theme PMD Method (Method of Theme Key Word) 62
   Episode 1 PMD Method and nodding when trying to understand something 67
   Episode 2 Using the the PMD Method can be used to investigate language 70
   Episode 3 PMD Method can clarify "chicken or egg?" relationships 72
   Episode 4 The Method of Key Question 74
   2.2 Steplist Management Method to Create a Faultless Phased Procedure 76
   2.2.1 Introduction 76
   2.2.2 Explanation of the Steplist format 76
   2.2.3 The procedure to make a Steplist, and how to use it 77
   2.2.4 Supplementary notes 78
   2.2.5 Examples 79
   2.2.6 Considerations 80
   2.2.7 Functions of Steplist management 81
   2.2.8 Significance of Steplist management 83
   2.2.9 Acknowledgments 83
   2.3 3-5(Three-Five) Phase Improvement Method to Divide the Approach to Improve Anything from its Present Status 93
   2.3.1 Introduction 93
   2.3.2 Procedures 94
   2.3.3 Supplementary notes 94
   2.3.4 Considerations 95
   2.4 FBS (Function Breakdown Structure) Technique to Create the Image Structure 98
   2.4.1 Introduction 98
   2.4.2 Explanation of the method using examples 98
   2.4.3 Method for creating the most appropriate expression of the basic function (Key Word) 100
   2.4.4 How we can come up with effective ideas, and compare and select from them 101
   2.4.5 How we should create, compare, and select Breakdown Structures 102
   2.4.6 Extended use of Breakdown Structures 104
   2.4.7 Using this method to improve existing products, and to develop new products and new markets 106
   2.4.8 Considerations 106
   Episode 5 The relationship between PMD, Steplist, FBS, and 3-5 Phase Improvement 115
   Episode 6 Accumulation of Knowledge and Wisdom 117
   2.5 WBS Theme Phasing Technique to Gather Themes and Ideas from the People Concerned and Examine Them in a Timely Manner 119
   2.5.1 Introduction 119
   2.5.2 Procedures 120
   2.5.3 Supplementary notes 121
   2.5.4 Considerations 122
   Episode 7 Differences in the way of men and women think 129
   Episode 8 A Strange phenomenon in visual recognition: a difference between men and women 136
   Episode 9 The difference between men and women in dextro-rotation and levo-rotation 141
   2.6 Root Organizing Method to Start New Things in Existing Organizations 144
   2.6.1 Introduction 144
   2.6.2 Procedures 145
   2.6.3 Supplementary notes 146
   2.6.4 Considerations 147
   2.7 Implementation Plan Document Method to Materialize the Objective Result of the Organization 150
   2.7.1 Introduction 150
   2.7.2 Procedures 150
   2.7.3 Supplementary notes 151
   2.7.4 Use of the implementation table format 153
   2.7.5 Considerations 153
   2.8 How the DTCN Methodology was Created and a Comparison of the Steplist Procedure with Conventional Procedures 157
   2.8.1 Introduction 157
   2.8.2 How the DTCN methodology was created 157
   2.8.3 Considerations 159
Chapter 3 Examples of the Application of the Basic Method and their Considerations 167
   3.1 How to Create the Domains of Thinking and Consensus among the People Concerned (the Details of the PMD Method and Advanced Considerations) 170
   3.1.1 Introduction 170
   3.1.2 Purpose of the Chapter 171
   3.1.3 Definition of Terms 171
   3.1.4 The Need for a New Method as Felt When Preparing Preliminary and Follow-up Research and Development Plans in the Conventional Way 172
   3.1.5 Structure of the Chapter 174
   3.1.6 Basic Principles of the Application of the Method 174
   3.1.7 Specific Examples 174
   3.1.8 The Basic Model of the PMD Method and Variations on the Model 177
   3.1.9 Further Considerations 182
   3.1.10 Future Perspectives (as of 1992) 195
   Episode 10 Avoiding Confusion between the Terms "Problem" and "Theme/Subject" 219
   3.2 The Details of the Steplist Method and Advanced Analysis 222
   3.2.1 Introduction 222
   3.2.2 Specific Examples of Steplists in an Airplane Development Project 222
   3.2.3 Steplists at the Integrated System Level 223
   3.2.4 Steplists at the Equipment Specifications Level 224
   3.2.5 Steplists at the Equipment Vendor Level 224
   3.2.6 Reciprocal Relationships between the Three Steplists 224
   3.2.7 Considerations 224
Chapter 4 Supplemental methods for DTCN methodology 241
   4.1 WBS Method (Re-definition) 245
   4.1.1 Introduction 245
   4.1.2 What is WBS? 245
   4.1.3 WBS in the wider sense 246
   4.1.4 How to prepare a parent-child-style WBS (WBS method) 247
   4.1.5 Software to input the above results (this product was prepared by the author) 247
   4.1.6 Discussion 248
   Episode 11. Effects of two styles of WBS, lateral sentence-connecting and vertical parent-child, on the balance of contents and the prevention of "missing items" or "faulty items" 255
   4.2 WBS in Moebius style to effectively and efficiently allocate design work in the beginning stages of Design (Moebius strip-style WBS) 257
   4.2.1 Introduction 257
   4.2.2 What is a Moebius strip-style WBS? 257
   4.2.3 Overall flow of the Moebius strip-style WBS 258
   4.2.4 How to spread a Moebius strip-style WBS 258
   4.2.5 Detailed interface between WBSs 260
   4.2.6 Discussion 261
   4.3 Evaluation and structuring method for pre-evaluation from a rational perspective 268
   4.3.1 Introduction 268
   4.3.2 What is the pre-evaluation method? 268
   4.3.3 Priority Method 269
   4.3.4 Scoring Method (revised) (Table 4.3-2) 269
   4.3.5 DARE (Decision Alternative Ratio Evaluation) Method 270
   4.3.6 Considerations in scoring the evaluation 271
   4.3.7 Rules for taking a reasonable majority decision on evaluation plans 271
   4.3.8 Method to immediately combine and select the best structuring plans 272
   4.3.9 Essentials for evaluation-based decision-making 272
   4.3.10 Discussion 273
   Episode 12 Meaning of Evaluation, and Interpretation of Evaluation Criteria 280
   Episode 13 Contents of the terms, "abduction," "verification," "evaluation," and "decision-making" 283
Chapter 5. Reasonable Purchase Price and the Criteria for its Determination (Knowledge of Reasonable Purchase Price) 291
   5.1 Steplist for a reasonable purchase price 294
   5.1.1 Introduction 294
   5.1.2 Viewpoints for preventing personal loss 295
   5.1.3 The way of thinking for a reasonable purchase price 296
   5.1.4 Steplist for a reasonable purchase price 297
   5.1.5 Discussion 298
   5.2 How to use a price/cost breakdown table for cost control 304
   5.2.1 Introduction 304
   5.2.2 What is a price/cost breakdown table? 304
   5.2.3 Price/cost breakdown table to understand cost 304
   5.2.4 Price/cost breakdown table to provide room for cost control 308
   5.2.5 Discussion 310
   5.3 Price Determination Criteria 318
   5.3.1 Introduction 318
   5.3.2 Pricing principles 318
   5.3.3 Purchase price policy and the overall adjustment factors for the policy 319
   5.3.4 Types of prices 320
   5.3.5 Viewpoints required for a purchase price policy 323
   5.3.6 Purchase price patterns and the factors to change them 324
   5.3.7 Purchase market investigation 325
   5.3.8 Technical purchasing ability 326
   5.3.9 Discussion 327
Chapter 6 Basic Conditions to Proceed with "Design to Cost" 329
   6.1 General Matters 332
   6.1.1 Introduction 332
   6.1.2 Effect of Combining DTC Method Using Development Control with the DTCN Method 334
   6.1.3 Discussion of Conventional DTC 335
   6.2 Minimum Knowledge Needed to Proceed with Design to Cost 338
   6.2.1 Decision-Making Based on Creation of Information of Difference 338
   6.2.2 Cost Driving Factor 338
   6.2.3 Grade of Estimate 339
   6.2.4 Recognize Differences among DTCs for Mass Production Unit Cost, Development Cost, and Lifecycle Cost 340
   6.2.5 Difference Between Development Step Portion Which Implements DTC and Development Step Portion Which Does Not Implement DTC 343
   6.3 Essential Conditions to Proceed with Design to Cost 352
   6.3.1 Securing or Dividing the DTC Implementation Budget 352
   6.3.2 Preparation of a DTC Implementation Plan Document Using the DTC Method and an Effective Follow-up Utilizing Questionnaire Prepared in Advance 353
   6.3.3 Preparation of Necessary Cost Verification Guidelines (Needed Especially for Contracts with the Government) 354
   6.3.4 Confirming the Existence of the Basic Agreement of Materials Transaction Among Corporations 355
   Episode 14 Risk Management 362
Chapter 7 Design to Cost (DTC) for Unit Production Cost 363
   7.1 General Matters 367
   7.1.1 Introduction 367
   7.1.2 Outline: DTC Steplist and Each Step for Unit Production Cost 368
   7.2 Details of Each DTC Phase 376
   7.2.1 DTC Preparation (DTC Phase I) 376
   7.2.2 Allocation of DTC Target Cost (DTC Phase II) 378
   7.2.3 Basic Design Work Using DTC Worksheet (Preparation of Plan Drawing)(DTC Phase III) 381
   7.2.4 Detailed Design Work Considering Cost-Driving Factors (Preparation of Manufacturing Drawing) (DTC Phase IV) 388
   7.2.5 Prototype Production and Qualification Test (DTC Phase V) 391
   7.2.6 Review Before Mass-Production (DTC Phase VI) 392
   7.3 Comparison of Purchase Parts and Selection by DTC Procedure 409
   7.3.1 First Information Collection Phase 409
   7.3.2 Basic Concept Comparison Phase 410
   7.3.3 Breakdown and Combination Phase 410
   7.3.4 Second Information Collection Phase 410
   7.3.5 Vendor Selection Phase 411
   7.3.6 How to Guide Vendors to Implement DTC Activities 412
   7.4 DTC Implementation for Lifecycle Cost Using Information of Difference 431
   7.4.1 What is Lifecycle Cost Design? 431
   7.4.2 Lifecycle Cost Design using Information of Differences 431
   7.5 Setting up the Organization and Management for DTC Works 435
   7.5.1 Input 435
   7.5.2 DTC Work Activities (Assurance Activity Prior to the Output) 438
   7.5.3 Output 438
   7.5.4 Adjustment and Confirmation of DTC Results (Post-Assurance Activity) 439
   7.6 Significance of Thinking and Procedures for DTC using DTCN Method 447
   7.6.1 Significance of Thinking and Procedures for DTC Using DTCN Method 447
   7.6.2 Conclusion 448
Chapter 8 Design to Cost for Development Costs 453
   8.1 General Matters 456
   8.1.1 Introduction 456
   8.1.2 Review of the difference between DTC for unit production costs, DTC for lifecycle costs, and DTC for development costs 456
   8.2 Basic Matters 462
   8.2.1 Basic principles 462
   8.2.2 Phase division of ordinary development activity 462
   8.2.3 Concrete phase division to implement DTC for development costs 462
   8.2.4 Key to implementing DTC for development costs 464
   8.2.5 PMD (Purpose-Measure Diagram) for development activity 466
   8.2.6 Two-page plan and estimate of development activity 467
   8.3 Q&A about DTC for Development Costs 475
   8.4 Cost status report on DTC for development costs 486
   8.4.1 How to make the cost status report 847
   8.4.2 Relation between DTC cost status line and PMD of development activities 847
   8.5 Unexpected cost classification and management method in implementing DTC for development cost 489
   8.5.1 Unexpected cost classification and management method (draft) 489
   8.6 Significance of DTC for development cost by DTCN methodology 502
   8.6.1 Current status of DTC for development costs in the United States (as of 1991) 502
   8.6.2 Current status of DTC for development costs in Japan (as of 1991) 502
   8.6.3 Significance of DTC for development cost by DTCN methodology in this book 503
Chapter 9 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 505
   9.1 Conclusions 508
   9.1.1 Significance of this Publication 508
   9.1.2 Answers to Challenges that Revealed the Need for this Publication 508
   9.1.3 Other Points Made Clear and Feasible through this Publication 516
   9.1.4 Practical Outcomes 517
   9.1.5 Further Applications of the Methods Found in this Publication 518
   9.2 Future Perspectives and Challenges 523
   9.2.1 Consolidation of Existing Concepts into Further Supplemental Applications (Structured Procedures and Images) 523
   9.2.2 Actual Application of the DTCN Method in a Report concerning Proposal No. 19, "Basic Research Plan for Software-Related Technology" of the Science and Technology Committee of the Japanese Government Dated Dec. 12,1992[3] 524
Acknowledgments regarding the Doctoral Dissertation
   Appendix A NM Method 535
   1. Introduction 537
   2. Technique outline and characteristics 537
   3. Method for Advancing Technique 540
   4. Important Notices 542
   5. Application Field 543
   Appendix B The subsequent materials is supplementary material for the finely-tuned use of the DTCN/DTC methodology 551
   B-1. Framework Flow Chart For the Storage of Know-how and Cost Management in Enterprises 553
   B-2. Creating Mission of Seeds, Needs and Mine or My Own Organization 561
   B-3. Creating Customer Needs by Information Node and Concurrent Engineering Flow Chart 563
   B-4. What is "Plan to Cost"? 567
   B-5. Method for Cost Reduction and Improvements as Manufacturing Sites 581
   B-6. Method for effective and proper expediting 593
   B-7. Arranging for inquiries and reports, and the status of planning papers and the implementation plan document 601
   B-8. Classification and application of the form of meetings 607
   Appendix C MIL-STD-499A Engineering Management 609
   Appendix D The DTCN/DTC Success Story 635
   AppendixーE Design-to-Cost Implementation Standard, Program Plan, Implementation Plan, Formats and Samples of Instructions 651
   E-0 Design-to-Cost Implementation Standard 653
   E-1 Procedure to Compile Program Plan on Design-to-Cost at Each Planning Level (Unit Production Cost and Development Cost) 681
   E-2 Procedure to Compile the Implementation Plan Document for Design-to-Unit-Production-Cost Activity 691
   E-3 Procedure to Compile the Implementation Plan Document for Design-to-Development-Cost Activity 707
   E-4 Procedure to compile the Verification Procedure Document for Unit Production Cost 723
   E-5 Procedure to Compile the Verification Procedure Document for Development Cost 735
   E-6 Attached Formats 747
   E-7 Examples of Operation Instruction to Implement DTC in Development Design 775
   Appendix F One-Page Explanation of DTCN/DTC Methodology 795
   1. The Purpose-Measure Relationship of DTCN Methodology 797
   2. Purpose-Measure Relationship Of Design-To-Cost Using DTCN Methodology 798
   1A. How to Proceed with DTCN (Design-to-Customers'-Needs) 800
   2A. How to Proceed with DTC (Design-To-Cost) 802
   Appendix G. A Method for Changing Knowledge to Wisdom and a Wisdom Engine for the Wisdom Management Era 805
   Appendix H. A Procedure and Format for the Thinking and Action of "Abduction, Verification, Evaluation and Decision Making" to Reveal Rational Past Mechanisms and to Create Future Mechanisms. By Michihiko Esaki and Kenji Kimura 827
   Appendix I. Self-organized flow chart to create and improve goods, products, services, or markets using a multi-screen wisdom desk (combining the QFD, DTCN/DTC, TRIZ and Taguchi Methods) 869
   Appendix J. The relationship between QFD, VA/VE and DTCN/DTC methodology by Tatsunori kawai 883
   Appendix K. The Method of Project Management/Accounting Using Reversed Journal Position Format 893
   The Method to Create a Co-operative Thinking and Working Place Among Science/Engineering and Management/Accounting People- by Tatsunori kawai
   Appendix L An Autonomic Thinking method for Creative Thinking with the PMD Method by Michihiko Esaki, Shinichiro Kai, Tatsunori Kawai, Yoshikazu Houken 907
   Appendix M Training by making a PMD to create a PMD 917
Preface to the English Edition
Preface to Japanese language Edition (1997)
I. Problem Areas in Existing Thinking Methodology and Management Methodology
2.

図書

図書
edited by Nobuyoshi Yasuda
出版情報: Weinheim : Wiley-VCH, c2011  xv, 282 p. ; 25 cm
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Introduction
NNRTI
CCR5
Procesar
Maxsalt
Emend
MK-0524
SREM
NK-1
Kinase Inhibitor
CB-1
Introduction
NNRTI
CCR5
3.

図書

東工大
目次DB

図書
東工大
目次DB
edited by Hideo Aoki, Yasuhiko Syono, Russell J. Hemley
出版情報: New York : Cambridge University Press, 2000  xviii, 397 p.: ill.; 26 cm
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Preface
List of Contributors
Part I Introduction 1
   Chapter 1.1 Physics and Mineralogy: The Current Confluence Hideo Aoki, Yasuhiko Syono, Russell J. Hemley 3
   1.1.1 Introduction 3
   1.1.2 From Mineral Assemblages to First-Principles Theory 4
   1.1.3 Physics Meets Mineralogy: An Overview of the Articles in this Book 10
   1.1.4 Conclusion 15
   References 15
Part II Advances in Theoretical and Experimental Techniques 19
   Chapter 2.1 Density Functional Theory in Mineral Physics Lars Stixrude 21
   2.1.1 Introduction 21
   2.1.2 Theory 23
   2.1.3 Computation 31
   2.1.4 Some Applications 34
   2.1.5 Future Directions 38
   2.1.6 Conclusions 40
   Acknowledgment 41
   References 41
   Chapter 2.2 Crystallographic Orbits and Their Application to Structure Types Takeo Matsumoto 44
   2.2.1 Introduction 44
   2.2.2 Definitions 45
   2.2.3 Application of Noncharacteristic Orbits to the Derived Fluorite-Type Structures 50
   2.2.4 Summary 58
   Acknowledgments 58
   References 58
   Appendix: NCOs of the Space Groups 59
   Chapter 2.3 Accuracy in X-Ray Diffraction Larry W. Finger 63
   2.3.1 Introduction 63
   2.3.2 Axial Divergence 63
   2.3.3 Sample Positioning Errors 67
   2.3.4 Nonhydrostatic Stress 68
   2.3.5 Conclusions 70
   Acknowledgments 70
   References 70
   Chapter 2.4 Statistical Analysis of Phase-Boundary Observations Abby Kavner, Terry Speed, and Raymond Jeanloz 71
   2.4.1 Introduction 71
   2.4.2 Generalized Linear Model 73
   2.4.3 Results: Analysis of Platinum Data 75
   2.4.4 Results: Analysis of Previous Statistical Methods 77
   References 79
Part III New Findings in Oxides and Silicates 81
   Chapter 3.1 Search for a Connection Among Bond Strength, Bond Length, and Electron-Density Distributions G.V. Gibbs, M.B. Boisen, Jr., F.C. Hill, and Osamu Tamada 83
   3.1.1 Introduction 83
   3.1.2 Power-Law Relationships 86
   3.1.3 Discussion 90
   Acknowledgments 93
   References 93
   Chapter 3.2 MgO-The Simplest Oxide R.E. Cohen 95
   3.2.1 Electronic Structure of MgO 96
   3.2.2 Equation of State 101
   3.2.3 Elasticity 103
   3.2.4 Thermal Conductivity 106
   3.2.5 Melting 113
   3.2.6 Defects and Diffusion 117
   3.2.7 Summary and Conclusions 119
   Acknowledgments 120
   References 120
   Chapter 3.3 First-Principles Theoretical Study of the High-Pressure Phases of MnO and FeO: Normal and Inverse NiAs Structures Z. Fang, K. Terakura, H. Sawada, I. Solovyev, and T. Miyazaki 124
   3.3.1 Introduction 124
   3.3.2 First-Principles Calculations Based on DFT 127
   3.3.3 Plane-Wave Basis Pseudopotential Method 128
   3.3.4 Results and Discussion 130
   3.3.5 Summary of Results 140
   Acknowledgments 140
   References 140
   Chapter 3.4 Computer-Simulation Approach to the Thermoelastic, Transport, and Melting Properties of Lower-Mantle Phases Atul Patel, Lidunka Vocadlo, and G. David Price 143
   3.4.1 Introduction 143
   3.4.2 Computer-Simulation Techniques and Diffusion Models 144
   3.4.3 Geophysical Applications 151
   3.4.4 Summary 167
   References 168
Part IV Transformations in Silica 171
   Chapter 4.1 Polymorphism in Crystalline and Amorphous Silica at High Pressures Russell J. Hemley, James Badro, and David M. Teter 173
   4.1.1 Introduction 173
   4.1.2 Equilibrium High-Pressure Phases 174
   4.1.3 Metastable Crystalline High-Pressure Phases 181
   4.1.4 High-Pressure Amorphous Forms 190
   4.1.5 High-Density Liquid 196
   4.1.6 Conclusions 200
   References 200
   Chapter 4.2 Shock-Induced Phase Transitions of Rutile Structures Studies by the Molecular-Dynamics Calculation Keiji Kusaba and Yasuhiko Syono 205
   4.2.1 Introduction 205
   4.2.2 Computational Experiments 208
   4.2.3 Result 210
   4.2.4 Comparing Calculation Results with High-Pressure Experiments 219
   4.2.5 Summary 222
   Acknowledgment 222
   References 223
   Chapter 4.3 Lattice Instabilities Examined by X-ray Diffractometery and Molecular Dynamics Takamitsu Yamanaka and Taku Tsuchiya 225
   4.3.1 Introduction 225
   4.3.2 Lattice Instability Under Pressure 227
   4.3.3 Homogeneous Three-Dimensional Strain 228
   4.3.4 Effect on the Diffraction Intensity 229
   4.3.5 Effect on th3 Diffraction Profile on the FWHM 231
   4.3.6 Observations of Lattice Instability 232
   4.3.7 Simulation of Pressure-Induced Amorphization by Molecular Dynamics 234
   4.3.8 MD-Dynamics Simulation Techniques 235
   4.3.9 Mechanism of Pressure-Induced Amorphization 238
   References 240
   Chapter 4.4 Effect of Hydrostaticity on the Phase Transformations of Cristobalite Takehiko Yagi and Masaaki Yamakata 242
   4.4.1 Introduction 242
   4.4.2 Experimental 243
   4.4.3 Results 244
   4.4.4 Discussion 251
   4.4.5 Conclusion 253
   Acknowledgments 254
   References 254
Part V Novel Structures and Materials 257
   Chapter 5.1 Opportunities in the Diversity of Crystal Structures - A View from Condensed-Matter Physics Hideo Aoki 259
   5.1.1 Introduction 259
   5.1.2 Polymorphism - A Case Study in Silica 260
   5.1.3 Polymorphs in General 275
   5.1.4 Pressure-Induced Amorphisation 279
   5.1.5 Superstructures 280
   5.1.6 Metal-Insulator Transition - An Example of the Electron-Correlation Effect 284
   5.1.7 Electron-Correlation Engineering in Novel Structures 286
   Acknowledgments 293
   References 293
   Chapter 5.2 Theoretical Search for New Materials - Low-Temperature Compression of Graphitic Layered Materials S. Tsuneyuki, Y. Tateyama, T. Ogitsu, and K. Kusakabe 299
   5.2.1 Introduction 299
   5.2.2 BCN Heterodiamond 301
   5.2.3 Li-Encapsulated Diamond 303
   5.2.4 Conclusion 305
   Acknowledgments 306
   References 306
   Chapter 5.3 H...H Interactions and Order-Disorder at High Pressure in Layered Hydroxides and Dense Hydrous Phases J.B. Parise, H. Kagi, J.S. Loveday, R.J. Nelmes, and W.G. Marshall 308
   5.3.1 Introduction 308
   5.3.2 Experimental Details 314
   5.3.3 Results 316
   5.3.4 Discussion 318
   5.3.5 Conclusion and Future Work 319
   Acknowledgments 319
   References 320
Part VI Melts and Crystal-Melt Interactions 323
   Chapter 6.1 Comparison of Pair-Potential Models for the Simulation of Liquid SiO2: Thermodynamic, Angular-Distribution, and Diffusional Properties M. Hemmati and C.A. Angell 325
   6.1.1 Introduction 325
   6.1.2 Procedures 328
   6.1.3 Results 330
   6.1.4 Discussion 335
   6.1.5 Conclusions 336
   Acknowledgments 336
   References 337
   Chapter 6.2 Transport Properties of Silicate Melts at High Pressure Brent T. Poe and David C. Rubie 340
   6.2.1 Introduction 340
   6.2.2 Previous Experimental Studies 342
   6.2.3 Experimental Methods 344
   6.2.4 Ion-Microprobe Probe Analysis 345
   6.2.5 Results and Discussion 346
   Acknowledgments 351
   References 352
   Chapter 6.3 Structural Characterization of Oxide Melts with Advanced X-Ray-Diffraction Methods Yoshio Waseda and Kazumasa Sugiyama 354
   6.3.1 Introduction 354
   6.3.2 Ordinary Angular-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction 355
   6.3.3 Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Diffraction 363
   6.3.4 Anomalous X-Ray-Scattering Method 369
   6.3.5 Summary 377
   Acknowledgments 378
   References 378
   Chapter 6.4 Computer-Simulation Approach for the Prediction of Trace-Element Partitioning Between Crystal and Melt Masami Kanzaki 381
   6.4.1 Introduction 381
   6.4.2 Calculation Procedure 382
   6.4.3 Results 385
   6.4.4 Discussion 388
   Acknowledgments 389
   References 389
Subject Index 391
Materials Formula Index 395
Index of Contributors 397
Preface
List of Contributors
Part I Introduction 1
4.

図書

東工大
目次DB

図書
東工大
目次DB
Heitaro Nakajima, Hiroshi Ogawa ; translation by Charles Aschmann
出版情報: Tokyo, Japan : Ohmsha, c1992  x, 232 p. ; 24 cm
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Preface
INTRODUCTION: THE CHANGES RECORDED DICS
   I.1 The Changes in Discs (Records) 1
   I.2 The Changes in Software 4
Chapter 1 WHAT IS A COMPACT DISC - THE CD SYSTEM
   1.1 More than 60 Minutes Playing Time Is Possible with a Small Disc 7
   1.2 Why Does a Single Disc Hold More than an Hour? 7
   1.3 A Signal of 0's and 1's Is Used for Recording 9
   1.4 Resistant to Dirt and Scratches 11
   1.5 There Is No Needle in the CD System Pickup 12
   1.6 The Light Beam Plays the Role of the Needle 14
   1.7 Frequency Response of the CD System 16
   1.8 The RPM at the Inside and Outside Circumferences of the Disc Are Different in the CD System 19
Chapter 2 THE STEPS OF DIGITALIZATION
   2.1 The Steps toward Digital Audio 21
   2.1.1 Start with rotary head 21
   2.1.2 Stationary head type follows 24
   2.1.3 A rotary head consumer model marketed 24
   2.2 Why Is Digitalization Good? 29
   2.2.1 The chance for digitalization 29
   2.2.2 What is digitalization 33
   2.2.3 Sampling and quantization 34
   2.2.4 The method of digitalization 38
   2.2.5 Characteristics affecting sound quality 43
   2.2.6 Characteristics affecting operability 44
   2.2.7 Characteristics of equipment design and selection 44
   2.2.8 Route to commercialization 45
Chapter 3 THE BIRTH OF THE DIGITAL AUDIO DISC (DAD)
   3.1 Growth-Looking Back at Video Discs 47
   3.1.1 Development of video discs 47
   3.1.2 Piezoelectric (mechanical) systems - TED system 47
   3.1.3 Capacitance systems 48
   3.1.4 Optical system 53
   3.1.5 Magnetic system 55
   3.2 Standardization of Digital Audio Discs 55
   3.2.1 The path to standardization - the steps toward DAD 55
   3.2.2 CD system 59
   3.2.3 MD system 59
   3.2.4 AHD system 62
   3.2.5 The evaluation of the DAD conference 64
   3.3 Main System Standards for the CD System 65
   3.3.1 Sampling frequency 44.1 kHz 65
   3.3.2 Quantization number 16 bits 68
   3.3.3 Playing time 60 minutes 69
   3.3.4 Disc dimensions 12 cm 70
Chapter 4 CONSTRUCTION OF THE DISC
   4.1 The Shape and Materials of the Disc 71
   4.2 Premastering 73
   4.3 How Discs Are Made 76
   4.3.1 Compression molding 78
   4.3.2 Injection molding 78
   4.3.3 2P method (photo polymerization) 79
   4.4 Shape of the Pits 80
   4.4.1 Pit width 80
   4.4.2 Pit length 80
   4.4.3 Pit depth 81
   4.4.4 Pit edges 82
   4.4.5 Asymmetry 83
Chapter 5 CONSTRUCTION OF THE SIGNAL
   5.1 Why Is Error Correction Necessary? 85
   5.2 What Is Error Correction? 87
   5.3 Error Correction in the CD System (CIRC) 92
   5.3.1 Reed-Solomon code 92
   5.3.2 CIRC 97
   5.4 Why Modulation Is Necessary 105
   5.5 Modulation Method for the CD System (EFM) 107
   5.6 Signal Format 111
   5.7 Subcoding 113
   5.8 CD-ROM Format 117
   5.9 CDV Format and Signal Processing 119
Chapter 6 CONSTRUCTION OF THE PLAYER
   6.1 Player Construction 125
   6.2 Function of the Optical Pickup 126
   6.3 Restoration of the RF Signal 128
   6.4 Asymmetry Correction and Clock Regeneration 131
   6.5 Digital Signal Processing and the Function of the Memory 132
   6.6 Tracking Servo Mechanism 133
   6.6.1 Twin spot system 135
   6.6.2 Push-pull system 136
   6.7 Focus Servo Mechanism 138
   6.7.1 Astigmatism method 140
   6.7.2 Foucault method 141
   6.8 Speed Control Servo Mechanism 142
   6.9 Construction of the CDV Player 145
Chapter 7 AN ACTUAL CD PLAYER
   7.1 Player Structure 149
   7.2 Analog ICs 150
   7.2.1 RF amp 150
   7.2.2 Servo signal processing 151
   7.3 Digital ICs 152
   7.3.1 Signal processing LSI 152
   7.3.2 LSI for the digital filter 154
   7.4 DA Converter 155
   7.4.1 Integration method 158
   7.4.2 DEM method 160
   7.5 Slide Mechanism and Access 162
   7.5.1 Slide mechanism 162
   7.5.2 Access 164
   7.6 Optical Pickup 165
   7.6.1 Laser diode (Semiconductor laser) 168
   7.6.2 Lens 173
   7.6.3 Actuator 174
   7.6.4 Detector 176
   7.6.5 Integrated pickup 176
Chapter 8 HOW TO ENJOY THE CD SYSTEM
   8.1 Summing up the Special Features of the CD System 179
   8.1.1 Sound quality - obtainable response 179
   8.1.2 Reliability - the advantage of no-contact operation 180
   8.1.3 Operability 181
   8.1.4 Dimensions and weight 182
   8.2 Different Kinds of CDs 183
   8.2.1 Components 183
   8.2.2 Car stereos 186
   8.2.3 Automatic changers 187
   8.2.4 Portable players 188
   8.3 Using CDs 190
   8.3.1 Players 190
   8.3.2 Discs 191
   8.4 Additional Features of CDs 192
   8.4.1 Subcoding 192
   8.4.2 Digital audio interface 195
   8.4.3 4 Channel systems 196
Chapter 9 CD - VARIATIONS
   9.1 Extended Forms for CDs 197
   9.2 CD-ROM 199
   9.2.1 Main features 199
   9.2.2 Data recording 200
   9.2.3 Hardware 201
   9.3 CD-I 203
   9.3.1 Main features 203
   9.3.2 Data recording 204
   9.3.3 Hardware 206
   9.4 CDV 207
   9.4.1 Data recording 208
   9.4.2 Hardware 209
   9.5 CD Singles 209
   9.6 Recordable CDs 209
Explanation of Terms 211
Index 217
Preface
INTRODUCTION: THE CHANGES RECORDED DICS
   I.1 The Changes in Discs (Records) 1
5.

図書

図書
Yoshitaka Ishizuka
出版情報: 東京 : 近代文藝社, 2009.10  228 p. ; 20 cm
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6.

図書

図書
Dedy Hermawan Bagus Wicaksono
出版情報: [Delft] : [Delft University of Technology], c2008  xvi, 400 p. ; 24 cm
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7.

図書

図書
Shigeo Honda ... [et al.], editors
出版情報: New York : Nova Science Publishers, c2012  x, 140 p. ; 23 cm
シリーズ名: Materials science and technologies series
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Giant Magnetoresistance in Magnetic Multilayers & Magnetic Granular Alloys
Tunneling Giant Magnetoresistance in Heterogeneous Insulating Granular Films
Formation of Granular Layers by Ion Implantation
TMR Effect in Granular Layers by Ion Implantation
Index
Giant Magnetoresistance in Magnetic Multilayers & Magnetic Granular Alloys
Tunneling Giant Magnetoresistance in Heterogeneous Insulating Granular Films
Formation of Granular Layers by Ion Implantation
8.

図書

図書
Endange Katmiwati
出版情報: Yogyakarta : Leutikaprio, 2012  xiv, 67 p. ; 19 cm
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