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図書

図書
edited by Gerrit Schüürmann, Bernd Markert
出版情報: New York : John Wiley , Heidelberg : Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, c1998  xxix, 900 p. ; 25 cm
シリーズ名: Environmental science and technology
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List of Contributors
Historical Introduction and Ecological Fundamentals / Part 1:
Ecotoxicological Research--Historical Development and Perspectives / Sven Erik Jorgensen1:
Summary / 1.1:
When Did It Start? / 1.2:
Modelling and Ecotoxicology / 1.3:
The Trends in the 1980s / 1.4:
Estimation of Ecotoxicological Properties / 1.5:
Ecosystem Considerations / 1.6:
References / 1.7:
Ecosystem Principles for Ecotoxicological Analyses / Helmut Lieth2:
Introduction / 2.1:
Definition of an Ecosystem / 2.3:
The Structure of Ecosystems / 2.4:
Physiognomic Structure / 2.4.1:
Chemical Structure / 2.4.2:
Elemental Differences / 2.4.3:
Differences Between Chemical Compounds / 2.4.4:
Genetic Structure / 2.4.5:
Information Structure / 2.4.6:
Physical Structure / 2.4.7:
The Function of Ecosystems / 2.5:
Energy Flow / 2.5.1:
The Flow of Material / 2.5.2:
The Flow of Information / 2.5.3:
Ecotoxicology and Ecosystems / 2.6:
Literature / 2.7:
Literature List for Element Concentrations in Halophytes (Table 2.1, Column 10) / 2.7.2:
Internet Citations / 2.7.3:
Sensitivity of Ecosystems and Ecotones / Otto Franzle3:
Population and Community Stability / 3.1:
Different Notions of Stability / 3.3.1:
Demographic Measures of Stability / 3.3.2:
Nondemographic Measures of Stability / 3.3.3:
Sensitivity of the Soil System / 3.4:
Sensitivity-Related Soil Qualities and Processes / 3.4.1:
Ecological Soil Functions as Sensitivity Measures / 3.4.2:
Ecotones / 3.5:
Ecotone Typology / 3.5.1:
Sensitivity of Ecotones / 3.5.2:
Sensitivity of Aquatic Ecosystems / 3.6:
Reactions of Aquatic Ecosystems to Stress / 3.6.1:
Sensitivity to Different Stressors / 3.6.2:
Appraisal / 3.7:
Population Dynamics of Plants Under Exposure and the Selection of Resistance / Wilfried H. O. Ernst3.8:
Quantitative Principles of Population Dynamics in Plants / 4.1:
Qualitative Principles of Population Dynamics / 4.4:
Reaction Pattern to Exposure--The Dose / 4.5:
Exposure Concentration and Exposure Time / 4.6:
Exposure Time and Life History / 4.7:
Conclusion / 4.8:
Community Ecology and Population Interactions in Freshwater Systems / Bruno Streit4.9:
Toxicants and Communities / 5.1:
Abiotic and Biotic Factors Influencing Communities / 5.3:
Why Concentrate on Freshwater Systems in this Chapter? / 5.4:
The Biological Community: Superorganism or Loose Species Assemblage? / 5.5:
Classifications and Characterizations of Freshwater Communities / 5.6:
Many Niches for Many Species / 5.7:
Two-Level Trophic Interactions / 5.8:
Multilevel Trophic Interactions / 5.9:
Nontrophic Interferences / 5.10:
Conclusions: How Should Toxic Effects on Communities be Interpreted? / 5.11:
Outlook / 5.12:
Chemicals in the Environment / 5.13:
Distribution and Biogeochemistry of Inorganic Chemicals in the Environment / Bernd Markert6:
Occurrence of Chemical Elements in the Environment / 6.1:
The Significance of Chemical Elements in Living Organisms / 6.3:
Interelemental Correlations / 6.3.1:
The Biological Function of Individual Elements / 6.3.2:
The Uptake Form of Individual Elements by the Plant / 6.3.3:
The Emission of Chemical Elements into the Environment / 6.4:
Cycles and Residence Times of Chemical Elements in the Environment / 6.5:
Nitrogen as an Example of a Macronutrient and "Environmental Pollutant" / 6.5.1:
Tin as an Example of a Microelement That is Both Essential and Toxic / 6.5.2:
Remedial Measures for Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals / 6.6:
Essentiality, Occurrence, Toxicity and Uptake Form of Individual Elements in the Environment / 6.7:
Estimated Annual Production of Individual Elements in the Year 2000 (Unless Otherwise Specified) and Examples of Their Technical Application / Appendix A.6.2:
Speciation of Chemical Elements in the Environment Rolf-Dieter Wilken / 7:
What Does "Speciation" Mean? / 7.1:
Speciation of Elements / 7.4:
Classically Defined Species / 7.4.1:
Operationally Defined Species / 7.4.2:
Dynamics of Species / 7.4.3:
Analytical Tools for Species Determination / 7.5:
Future Aspects / 7.6:
Measurement Needed / 7.6.1:
Remediation Approaches / 7.6.2:
Multimedia Mass Balance Models of Chemical Distribution and Fate / Don Mackay7.7:
Mathematical Basis / 8.1:
Environmental Media / 8.4:
Levels of Complexity / 8.5:
Model Structure and Variables / 8.6:
Existing Models / 8.7:
Fugacity Models / 8.7.1:
Nonfugacity Models / 8.7.2:
Round Robins / 8.7.3:
An Illustration of a Multimedia Model / 8.8:
Level I / 8.8.1:
Level II / 8.8.2:
Level III / 8.8.3:
Applications of Multimedia Models / 8.9:
Conclusions / 8.10:
Abiotic Transformation Reactions / Eric J. Weber8.11:
Hydrolysis / 9.1:
Hydrolysis Kinetics / 9.3.1:
Mechanisms of Hydrolysis / 9.3.2:
Redox Reactions / 9.4:
Oxidation / 9.4.1:
Reduction / 9.4.2:
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships in Redox Reactions / 9.4.3:
Transformation of Chlorinated Xenobiotics in the Environment / Heidelore Fiedler ; Christoph Lau9.5:
Definitions and Basics of Environmental Processes / 10.1:
Volatilization / 10.2.1:
Sorptive and Desorptive Processes / 10.2.2:
Bioconcentration / 10.2.3:
Biological Degradation / 10.3:
General Considerations / 10.3.1:
Environmental Factors Influencing Biodegradation Rates / 10.3.2:
Chemical Factors Influencing Biodegradation Rates / 10.3.3:
General Rules for Degradability of Chlorinated Organics / 10.3.4:
Aerobic Environments and Aerobic Respiration / 10.3.5:
Anaerobic Environments and Anaerobic Respiration / 10.3.6:
Sequential Biodegradation / 10.3.7:
Degradation Under Environmental Conditions / 10.3.8:
Nonbiological Degradation Processes / 10.4:
Photochemical Degradation / 10.4.1:
Chemical Degradation / 10.4.2:
Environmental Fate of Chlorinated Organics / 10.4.3:
Classification of Chlorinated Organics / 11.1:
Naturally Occurring Chlorinated Organic Compounds / 11.3.1:
Chlorinated Compounds of Anthropogenic Origin / 11.3.2:
Short-Chain Chlorinated Hydrocarbons / 11.4:
Chemical Identity and Environmental Levels / 11.4.1:
Chemical and Toxicological Properties / 11.4.2:
Ecotoxicological Relevance / 11.4.3:
Photooxidation of Perchloroethane and Trichloroacetyl Chloride / 11.4.4:
Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and Polychlorinated Dibenzofurans (PCDD/PCDF) / 11.5:
Toxicity of PCDD/PCDF / 11.5.1:
Environmental Behavior / 11.5.3:
National Inventories / 11.5.4:
National Mass Balances / 11.5.5:
Reservoirs / 11.5.6:
Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) / 11.6:
Legal Situation / 11.6.1:
PCB Levels in the Environment / 11.6.3:
Environmental Fate of PCB / 11.6.4:
Toxicity of PCB / 11.6.5:
Global Distribution--Long-Range Transport / 11.7:
Organochlorine Substances in the Marine Environment / 11.8:
Criteria Important for an Environmental Impact Assessment / 11.8.1:
Generation of Priority Compounds / 11.8.3:
Environmental Risk Assessment for Chlorinated Pesticides / 11.9:
General Aspects / 11.9.1:
Toxicity Ranking System for Chlorinated Pesticides / 11.9.2:
Results / 11.9.3:
Discussion / 11.9.4:
Ecochemistry of Toxaphene / Mehmet Coelhan ; Harun Parlar11.10:
Composition of Toxaphene / 12.1:
Isolation and Identification of Environmentally Relevant Toxaphene Components / 12.4:
Occurrence of Toxaphene in the Environment / 12.5:
Plants / 12.5.1:
Animals / 12.5.2:
Soil / 12.5.3:
Air / 12.5.4:
Water and Sediments / 12.5.5:
Photodegradation of Toxaphene Components / 12.6:
Degradation of Toxaphene Components in Soil / 12.7:
Degradation of Toxaphene by Animals / 12.8:
Degradation of Toxaphene by Plants / 12.9:
Toxicity, Mutagenicity, and Cancerogenicity of Toxaphene / 12.10:
Structure-Degradability Relationship of Toxaphene Components / 12.11:
Specimen Banking as an Environmental Surveillance Tool / Antonius Kettrup ; Petra Marth12.12:
Bioindicators / 13.1:
Idea of Environmental Specimen Banking / 13.4:
Realization / 13.5:
Sampling / 13.5.1:
Analytical Sample Characterization / 13.5.2:
Conclusions and Future Perspectives / 13.6:
Bioaccumulation and Biological Effects of Chemicals / 13.7:
Bioaccumulation of Chemicals by Aquatic Organisms / Des W. Connell14:
Significance of Biomagnification in Aquatic Systems / 14.1:
Influence of Type of Compound on Bioconcentration / 14.4:
The Mechanism of Bioconcentration and Biomagnification / 14.5:
Influence of Some Biological Characteristics on Bioconcentration / 14.6:
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships for Bioconcentration / 14.7:
Kinetics of Bioconcentration / 14.8:
Bioaccumulation in the Natural Environment / 14.9:
Metal Bioaccumulation in Freshwater Systems: Experimental Study of the Actions and Interactions Between Abiotic and Contamination Factors / Alain Boudou ; Beatrice Inza ; Sylviane Lamaire-Gony ; Regine Maury-Brachet ; Muriel Odin ; Francis Ribeyre14.10:
Methodological Bases / 15.1:
Examples of Results / 15.4:
Effects of Abiotic Factors and Interactions Between These Factors on Mercury Bioaccumulation in Burrowing Mayfly Nymphs / 15.5:
Process-Oriented Descriptions of Toxic Effects / Sebastiaan A. L. M. Kooijman15.6:
Ecotoxicology / 16.1:
Risk Assessment / 16.2.2:
Standard Descriptions / 16.3:
LC[subscript 50] and Gradient / 16.3.1:
Problems / 16.3.2:
EC[subscript 50] / 16.3.3:
Dynamic Energy Budgets / 16.3.4:
Toxicokinetics / 16.5:
Effects / 16.6:
Effects on Survival / 16.6.1:
Effects on Growth and Reproduction / 16.6.2:
Effects on Population Dynamics / 16.7:
Toxicity Patterns / 16.8:
Temperature / 16.8.1:
pH / 16.8.2:
Body Size and Reserves / 16.8.3:
Solubility in Fat / 16.8.4:
Classes of Compounds / 16.8.5:
Sensitivity Among Species / 16.8.6:
Conclusions and Perspectives / 16.9:
Cellular Response Profile to Chemical Stress / Helmut Segner ; Thomas Braunbeck16.10:
Interaction with Membrane Processes / 17.1:
Intracellular Fate of Chemicals / 17.4:
Intracellular Receptors / 17.5:
Interaction with Nuclear Structures and Functions / 17.6:
Protective Molecules and Processes / 17.7:
Cell Injury and Death / 17.8:
Function of Cell Toxicology in Ecotoxicology / 17.9:
Long-Term Effects of Chemicals in Aquatic Organisms / Horst Peter ; Wolfgang Heger17.10:
Prediction of Prolonged and Long-Term Effects from LC/EC[subscript 50] Time Curves / 18.1:
Predictability of Prolonged and Long-Term No Effect Concentrations from Acute Toxicity Data / 18.4:
Evaluation of Data from Pesticide Registrations and Notifications According to the Chemicals Act / 18.5:
Bioaccumulation and Prolonged Toxicity / 18.6:
Prolonged and Chronic Tests for Aquatic Organisms / 18.7:
NOEC and EC[subscript x] / 18.7.1:
Algal Inhibition Test (92/69/EWG, Part C.3) / 18.7.2:
Daphnia, Acute Immobilization Test and Reproduction Test Part II--Reproduction Test Duration of at Least 14 Days, OECD 202, Part II / 18.7.3:
Fish, Prolonged Toxicity Test: 14-Day Study, OECD 204 / 18.7.4:
Fish, Juvenile Growth Test--28 Days, OECD, Draft / 18.7.5:
Fish, Early-Life Stage Toxicity Test, OECD 210 / 18.7.6:
Fish, Toxicity Test on Egg and Sac Fry Stages, OECD, Draft / 18.7.7:
Chronic Toxicity Test for Fish / 18.7.8:
Effects of Heavy Metals in Plants at the Cellular and Organismic Level / 18.8:
Metal Availability / 19.1:
Sensitivity and Resistance to Heavy Metals / 19.4:
Sensitivity and Resistance at the Cellular Level / 19.4.1:
The Plasma Membrane / 19.4.2:
The Cytosol / 19.4.3:
Protein Metabolism / 19.4.4:
Cell Organelles / 19.4.5:
Reaction of Plant Parts to a Surplus of Heavy Metals / 19.5:
Seeds and Germination / 19.5.1:
Seedling Stage / 19.5.2:
Root Growth and Metal Exposure / 19.5.3:
Shoot Growth and Leaf Response to a Surplus of Metals / 19.5.4:
Reproductive Growth and Metal Exposure / 19.5.5:
The Individual / 19.6:
Assessment of Ecotoxicity at the Population Level using Demographic Parameters / Nico M. van Straalen ; Jan E. Kammenga19.7:
Demographic Techniques / 20.1:
Population Performance Indices in Ecotoxicological Studies / 20.4:
Sensitivity Analysis Based on Life-History Responses to Toxicants / 20.5:
Trade-off Relationships among Demographic Characters / 20.6:
Effects of Pollutants on Soil Invertebrates: Links between Levels / Jason M. Weeks20.7:
Why Soil Invertebrates? / 21.1:
Structural and Functional Characteristics Required to Evaluate the Condition of Ecosystems / 21.4:
Levels of Organization for Evaluating the Effects of Chemicals / 21.5:
The Value of Mesocosm Experiments as Links to Real Ecosystems / 21.6:
Biomarkers: Advantages and Disadvantages / 21.7:
Biomarkers and Links to Ecological Effects: Laboratory Versus Field Studies / 21.8:
An Example of the Use of Soil Invertebrate Biomarkers to Assess Ecological Damage to a Forest System / 21.9:
Diagnosis and Establishment of a Link to Causation / 21.10:
Contributions to An Ecological Risk Assessment / 21.11:
Ecotoxic Modes of Action of Chemical Substances / Gerrit Schuurmann22:
Two Branches of Ecotoxicology / 22.1:
Outline of Subsequent Sections / 22.2.2:
Cause-Effect Relationships in the Field / 22.3:
DDT / 22.3.1:
Acid Rain / 22.3.2:
Chlorofluorocarbons / 22.3.3:
Biochemical Background and Modes of Toxic Action / 22.4:
Biotransformation / 22.4.1:
Classification of Chemical Toxicity / 22.4.2:
Compound Properties and Molecular Descriptors / 22.5:
Octanol/Water Partition Coefficient / 22.5.1:
Dissociation Constant in Aqueous Solution / 22.5.2:
Hammett Equation / 22.5.3:
Ground-State Global Molecular Reactivity / 22.5.4:
Ground-State Local Molecular Reactivity / 22.5.5:
Transition-State Theory / 22.5.6:
Molecular Mode-of-Action Analysis of Compound Toxicity / 22.6:
Aromatic Phosphorothionates / 22.6.1:
Chlorophenols and Nitrophenols / 22.6.2:
Alkylphenol Ethoxylate Surfactants / 22.6.3:
Triorganotins and other Organic Heavy Metals / 22.6.4:
Unsaturated Alcohols / 22.6.5:
Concluding Remarks / 22.7:
Endpoints and Thresholds in Ecotoxicology / John Cairns, Jr.22.8:
The Ecological Paradigm Shift / 23.1:
Ecotoxicology and Sustainable Use of the Planet / 23.3:
Ecotoxicology and Ecosystem Health / 23.4:
Concepts of Ecosystem Health: Utilitarian vs Philosophical / 23.5:
Ecotoxicology at the Landscape Level / 23.6:
Obstacles to the Development of Landscape Ecotoxicology / 23.7:
Balancing our Technological and Ecological Life Support System / 23.8:
Thresholds, Process Endpoints, and Ecosystem Service Delivery / 23.9:
Modeling Ecological Risks of Pesticides: A Review of Available Approaches / Lawrence W. Barnthouse23.10:
Endpoints / 24.1:
Model Evaluation Criteria / 24.2.2:
Past Reviews / 24.2.3:
Description of Modeling Approaches / 24.3:
Age/Stage-Structured Models / 24.3.1:
Individual-Based Models / 24.3.2:
Metapopulation Models / 24.3.3:
Spatially Explicit Models / 24.3.4:
Integration of Ecological Models into the New Paradigm / 24.4:
Types of Model Applications / 24.4.1:
State of Development of Modeling Approaches / 24.4.2:
Conclusions and Recommendations / 24.5:
Current and Future Test Strategies in Terrestrial Ecotoxicology / Reinhard Debus24.6:
Terrestrial Ecotoxicology / 25.1:
Evaluation of Substances / 25.3:
Substance-Related Evaluation and Limiting Values for Soils / 25.4:
Evaluation of Soil Quality / 25.5:
Alternative Assays for Routine Toxicity Assessments: A Review / Colin Janssen25.6:
Microbial Test Systems / 26.1:
General / 26.3.1:
Microbiotests / 26.3.2:
Algal Toxicity Tests / 26.4:
Invertebrates / 26.4.1:
The Use of Alternative Toxicity Tests in a Battery of Screening Assays / 26.5.1:
Conclusions and Research Perspectives / 26.7:
Legislative Perspective in Ecological Risk Assessment / Jan Ahlers ; Robert Diderich26.8:
Risk Assessment within the EU / 27.1:
Environmental Exposure Assessment / 27.3.1:
Environmental Effects Assessment / 27.3.2:
Risk Characterization / 27.3.3:
Example of a Risk Assessment of a Chemical Substance According to the EU Scheme / 27.3.4:
Comparison with Other Countries / 27.3.5:
Discussion and Perspectives / 27.4:
Availability of Data / 27.4.1:
Assessment Scheme for the Aquatic Compartment / 27.4.2:
Assessment Scheme for the Terrestrial Compartment / 27.4.3:
Influence of Persistence and Bioaccumulation Potential / 27.4.4:
Index / 27.5:
List of Contributors
Historical Introduction and Ecological Fundamentals / Part 1:
Ecotoxicological Research--Historical Development and Perspectives / Sven Erik Jorgensen1:
2.

図書

図書
edited by Fei Chen, Gerrit Schüürmann
出版情報: Pensacola, Fla. : SETAC Press, c1997  xxiv, 470 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: SETAC special publications series
所蔵情報: loading…
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