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1.

図書

図書
W. Lawrence Gulick, George A. Gescheider, Robert D. Frisina
出版情報: New York : Oxford University Press, 1989  xi, 409 p. ; 24 cm
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Introduction / 1:
Sound and Its Measurement / 2:
Historical Introduction / 3:
Structure and Function of the External and Middle Ear / 4:
Structure and Neural Projections of the Internal Ear / 5:
Cochlear Mechanics / 6:
Transduction and the Cochlear Potentials / 7:
The Cochlear Nerve / 8:
Central Auditory System / 9:
Sensitivity of the Ear / 10:
Pitch and Loudness / 11:
Complex Auditory Phenomena / 12:
Sound Localization / 13:
Hearing Loss and Audiology / 14:
Introduction / 1:
Sound and Its Measurement / 2:
Historical Introduction / 3:
2.

図書

図書
by Peter Ladefoged
出版情報: Edinburgh : Oliver and Boyd, 1962  vi, 118 p. ; 23 cm
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3.

図書

図書
D.E. Broadbent
出版情報: London ; New York : Pergamon Press, 1958  338 p. ; 22 cm
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4.

図書

図書
edited by Brian C.J. Moore
出版情報: San Diego ; Tokyo : Academic Press, c1995  xxi, 468 p. ; 24 cm
シリーズ名: Handbook of perception and cognition / editors, Edward C. Carterette, Morton P. Friedman
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Contributors
Foreword
Preface
The Physical Description of Signals / William Morris Hartmann1:
Introduction / I.:
Simple Harmonic Motion / II.:
RMS Value / A.:
Other Oscillators / B.:
Propagation of Sound / III.:
Energy, Power, and Intensity
Radiation
Plane Waves / C.:
Measurement of Acoustical Strength / IV.:
Levels and Pressure
Absolute dB
The Spectrum / V.:
The Fourier Transform / VI.:
Real and Complex Functions
Transforms of Sine and Cosine
The Delta Function
Amplitude and Phase Spectra / D.:
The Power Spectra of the Pure Tone and the Spike / E.:
The Lattice Function / F.:
The Convolution Theorem / G.:
Complex Periodic Signals / H.:
The Fourier Series
Temporal--Spectral Trading / J.:
Amplitude Modulation / VII.:
Balanced Modulation
Frequency Modulation / VIII.:
Narrowband FM
Wideband FM
Filters / IX.:
Frequency Domain
The Impulse Response
The One-Pole Low-Pass Filter
The Two-Pole Low-Pass Filter
Reference
Cochlear Structure and Function / Graeme K. Yates2:
Function and Structure of the Cochlea
Transduction of Acoustic Stimuli
Hair Cells and Mechanical-to-Electrical Transduction
Acoustic Preprocessing
Structure of the Cochlea
Active Processes within the Cochlea
Macromechanics
Experimental Observations
The Traveling Wave
Micromechanics
OHC Mechanical Activity
Coupling Energy to the BM
Localization of the Cochlear Amplifier along the BM
Cochlear Nonlinearity
Sources of Nonlinearity
Input--Output Functions
Distortion in the Cochlea
Otoacoustic Emissions
Two-Tone Suppression
Summary
References
Neural Signal Processing / Alan R. Palmer3:
Sound Frequency
Frequency Selectivity
Population Responses to Single Tones
Cochleotopic Organization
Frequency-Intensity Response Areas
Time Course of Activation by Single Tones
Two-Tone Rate and Synchrony Suppression
Sound Level
Rate versus Level Functions to CF Tones
The Dynamic Range Problem
Wider Dynamic Range of the Onset Response
Rate versus Level Functions in the Central Auditory System
Effect of Background Noise on Rate-Level Functions
Modulation
Speech and Vocalization
Representation of Speech Signals in the Auditory Nerve
Representation of Speech Signals in the Central Nervous System
Cues for Localization
Interaural Level Differences
Interaural Phase Differences
Onset and Ongoing Time Differences
Pinna Spectral Effects
Topographical Distribution of Interaural Sensitivities and Spatial Hearing
Summary and Concluding Remarks
Loudness Perception and Intensity Coding / Christopher J. Plack ; Robert P. Carlyon4:
The Perception of Loudness
Definition of Loudness
Loudness Matching
Loudness Scales
Models of Loudness
Other Factors That Affect Loudness
Parametric Studies of Intensity Discrimination
Measurement Techniques
Weber's Law and the Near Miss
Frequency Effects
Duration Effects
Models of Peripheral Intensity Coding
Coding by Spread of Excitation
Coding by Neural Synchrony
Models Based on Rate-Intensity Functions
Intensity Discrimination under Nonsimultaneous Masking
What Limits Intensity Discrimination?
Peripheral and Central Limitations
Memory for Intensity
Intensity Discrimination and Loudness
The Relationship between Intensity Discrimination and Loudness
Intensity Discrimination in Impaired Ears
Detection of Tones in Noise
The Overshoot Effect
Intensity-Independent Cues
Frequency Analysis and Masking / Brian C. J. Moore5:
The Power Spectrum Model and the Concept of the Critical Band
Estimating the Shape of the Auditory Filter
Psychophysical Tuning Curves
The Notched-Noise Method
The Rippled-Noise Method
Allowing for the Transfer Function of the Outer and Middle Ear
An Example of Measurement of the Auditory Filter Shape
Summary of the Characteristics of the Auditory Filter
Variation with Center Frequency
Variation with Level
Masking Patterns and Excitation Patterns
Relationship of the Auditory Filter to the Excitation Pattern
Changes in Excitation Patterns with Level
The Additivity of Masking and Excess Masking
Phenomena Reflecting the Influence of Auditory Filtering
The Threshold of Complex Sounds
Sensitivity to the Relative Phase
The Audibility of Partials in Complex Tones
Nonsimultaneous Masking
Evidence for Lateral Suppression from Nonsimultaneous Masking
The Enhancement of Frequency Selectivity Revealed in Nonsimultaneous Masking / X.:
Temporal Integration and Temporal Resolution / David A. Eddins ; David M. GreenXI.:
Temporal Integration
Classical Theory
Time-Intensity Trades
The Presence of Noise
Recent Theories
Temporal Acuity
Temporal Order
Phase Detection
Temporal Gap Detection
Amplitude-Modulation Detection
Temporal Asynchrony
Conclusions
Appendix
Across-Channel Processes in Masking / Joseph W. Hall III ; John H. Grose ; Lee Mendoza7:
Profile Analysis
Modulation Detection or Discrimination Interference
Across-Channel Effects Based upon Comodulation
Comodulation Masking Release
CMR and Stimulus Complexity
Monaural Envelope Correlation Perception and CMR
The Role of Energy in Masker Dips
Comodulation Detection Differences
Comodulation and the Perception of Speech
Concluding Remarks
Pitch Perception / Adrianus J. M. Houtsma8:
Pure Tones
The Mel Scale
Dependence on Intensity
Influence of Partial Masking
Binaural Diplacusis
Frequency Discrimination
Complex Tones
Historical Background
Template Theories of Pitch
The Role of Unresolved Harmonics
Hybrid Models
Pitch of Simultaneous Complex Tones
Pitch Ambiguity
Nontonal Pitch
Repetition Pitch
Huggins Pitch and Edge Pitch
Pitch of Amplitude-Modulated Noise
Pitch Scales: Relative and Absolute
Relative Pitch
Pitch Contours in Speech
Absolute Pitch
Multidimensional Aspects of Pitch
Spatial Hearing and Related Phenomena / D. Wesley Grantham9:
Binaural Processing / II:
Lateralization
Binaural Detection
Temporal Effects in Binaural Processing
Localization and Spatial Resolution in the Free Field
Localization and Spatial Resolution in the Horizontal Plane
Localization and Resolution in the Vertical Plane
Auditory Distance Perception
Detection and Discrimination of the Motion of Auditory Targets
The Precedence Effect
Background
The Localization Aspect: Localization of Sounds in Rooms
Buildup of Echo Suppression
Cortical Basis for the Precedence Effect
Models of Binaural Interaction / Richard M. Stern ; Constantine Trahiotis10:
Introduction: Cross-Correlation Models of Binaural Perception
Structure of Binaural Cross-Correlation-Based Models
The Original Forms of the Cross-Correlation Model
Colburn's Auditory-Nerve-Based Model
Physiological Support for Cross-Correlation in the Binaural System
Temporal Integration of the Coincidence Display
Extensions of the Cross-Correlation Approach
Extensions by Stern, Colburn, and Trahiotis
Extensions by Blauert, Cobben, Lindemann, and Gaik
Mechanisms for Time-Intensity Interaction and Image Formation
Ability of Cross-Correlation Models to Describe Psychoacoustical Data
Subjective Lateral Position
Interaural Discrimination Phenomena Related to Subjective Lateral Position
Binaural Masking-Level Differences
Dichotic Pitch Phenomena
Temporal Effects
Summary and Conclusions
Auditory Grouping / C. J. Darwin ; R. P. Carlyon11:
Peripheral Considerations
Mechanisms of Auditory Grouping
Harmonicity
Detecting Inharmonicity and "Hearing Out" Mistuned Components
Integration into Pitch Percepts
Identification of Speech Sounds
Onset and Offset Asynchrony
Detecting and Discriminating Onset and Offset Asynchronies
Order Discrimination
Timbre Judgments
Identifying Speech Sounds
Amplitude-Modulation Phase Differences
Detection of AM Phase Differences
Grouping by AM Phase Differences
AM Phase and Onset Asynchrony
Detection of Across-Frequency Differences in FM Phase
Hearing Out a Single Tone
The Nature of Auditory Grouping
Grouping Is Not All or None
Understanding Speech in the Absence of Primitive Grouping Cues
Timbre Perception and Auditory Object Identification / Stephen Handel12:
Sound Production
Source-Filter Model
Acoustic Structure
Perceptual Consequences
Experimental Results On Timbre and Object Perception
Instruments
Voices
Natural Events
Neuropsychological Evidence
Concluding Discussion
Index
Contributors
Foreword
Preface
5.

図書

図書
Stanley A. Gelfand
出版情報: New York : Marcel Dekker, 1998  viii, 470 p. ; 26 cm.
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Physical concepts
anatomy
conductive mechanism
cochlear mechanisms and processes
auditory nerve
auditory pathways
psychoacoustic methods
theory of signal detection
auditory sensitivity
masking
loudness
pitch
binaural hearing
speech perception
Physical concepts
anatomy
conductive mechanism
6.

図書

図書
Karl D. Kryter
出版情報: San Diego : Academic Press, c1994  xiv, 673 p. ; 24 cm
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7.

図書

図書
James Beament
出版情報: Woodbridge : Boydell Press, 2001  xiv, 174 p. ; 25 cm
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List of figures
List of tables
Preface and acknowledgements
Preliminaries / 1.:
Musical arithmetic / 1.1:
Musical sensations / 1.2:
Sound / 1.3:
Pitch and frequency / 1.4:
Transients / 1.5:
Auralising / 1.6:
Representing intervals / 1.7:
About hearing / 1.8:
Time in music / 1.9:
Aural archaeology / 2.:
The origins of music: making noises / 2.1:
Noise-making artefacts / 2.2:
Sustained-pitch instruments / 2.3:
Hearing selects intervals / 3.:
Introduction / 3.1:
The pentatonic scale / 3.2:
The pitch ratios / 3.3:
Derivation of the pentatonic scale / 3.4:
Using the scale / 3.5:
The octave / 3.6:
The extension of the pentatonic scale / 3.7:
The heptatonic scales / 3.8:
A visually determined scale / 3.9:
Drones / 3.10:
The historical puzzle / 3.11:
Non-harmonic scales / 3.12:
The beguiling harmonic theory / 4.:
Helmholtz resonators / 4.1:
Instrument harmonics / 4.2:
The flaw in the harmonic theory / 4.3:
The real questions about harmonics / 4.4:
Tone and timbre / 4.5:
Identifying instrument sounds / 4.6:
Defining tone / 4.7:
Timbre and discriminating pitch / 4.8:
Investigating tone / 4.9:
The harmonic contribution to pitch / 4.10:
Harmonicity and tone / 4.11:
The selection of instrumental tone / 4.12:
Timbre and the player / 4.13:
Vibrato / 4.14:
The susceptibility of hearing / 4.15:
Harmonic noise and the seventh fairytale / 4.16:
Conclusion / 4.17:
The imitating voice / 5.:
Hearing simultaneous pitches / 6.:
The medieval situation / 6.1:
The organ / 6.2:
The discovery of a twelve-pitch scale / 6.3:
The tuning problem / 6.4:
The just scale / 6.5:
Selecting intervals / 6.6:
Harpsichord interval sensations / 6.7:
Beats / 6.8:
How do we judge intervals? / 6.9:
Interval pitch patterns / 6.10:
The reality of simultaneous intervals / 6.11:
Equal-temperament / 6.12:
The piano / 6.13:
Consecutive intervals / 6.14:
Intonation and pitch stability / 6.15:
Patterns in harmony / 7.:
The basis of harmony / 7.1:
The harmonic sensation / 7.2:
Harmonic shorthands / 7.3:
Learning harmony / 7.4:
Other simultaneous-pitch phenomena / 7.5:
The three-tones paradox / 7.6:
Can we hear harmonics? / 7.7:
Loudness / 8.:
The basic dynamic scale / 8.1:
Loudness and frequency / 8.2:
Loudness and tone / 8.3:
Loudness and pitch / 8.4:
Varying loudness / 8.5:
Music through the hearing machine / 9.:
The questions / 9.1:
The evolutionary background / 9.2:
An overview of the hearing system / 9.3:
The hearing range / 9.4:
The sound receiver / 9.5:
The travelling wave / 9.6:
Signalling loudness / 9.7:
The hair cell's limitation / 9.8:
The discovery of the sound code / 9.9:
Pitch discrimination / 9.10:
Minimum duration for pitch / 9.11:
Producing a pure-tone sensation / 9.12:
Signalling sound with harmonics / 9.13:
The generation of hiss and buzz / 9.14:
Low and high frequencies / 9.15:
The creation of the pitch sensation / 9.16:
The creation of tone / 9.17:
Simple simultaneous intervals / 9.18:
Other simultaneous intervals / 9.19:
Chords / 9.20:
Harmonicity / 9.21:
Conclusions about intervals / 9.22:
Consecutive pitches / 9.23:
Polyphonic music / 9.24:
The general musical pitch phenomenon / 9.25:
Anomalies in pitch perception / 9.26:
A really aberrant hearing system / 9.27:
Tracking and the three-tones paradox / 9.28:
A sense of direction / 10.:
The direction-finding system / 10.1:
The timing system / 10.4:
Sensing transients / 10.5:
Noise amalgamation / 10.6:
The general characteristcs of hearing / 10.7:
Space sound / 10.8:
Conclusions / 10.9:
Time and rhythm / 11.:
The origin of time-patterned sound / 11.1:
Time in pitched music / 11.3:
Time and notation / 11.4:
Obtaining the pulse / 11.5:
The conductor / 11.6:
Time and the beginner / 11.7:
Variations on a pulse / 11.8:
You can't write it down / 11.9:
Metronomes and click tracks / 11.10:
What is rhythm? / 11.11:
We all hear the same thing / 12.:
The origins of music / 12.2:
Memory / 12.3:
Other pitch systems / 12.4:
Believing is hearing / 12.5:
Pleasure and wonder / 12.6:
Appendices
Interval names
Selecting pentatonic pitches
An alternative dodecaphonic route
Pitch discrimination and intervals
Tuning a keyboard by beats
The abominable cent
Repetition rates
Anatomical evolution
The primitive processor?
The ear structures
Hair cells
Recording auditory nerve pulses
The irregular distribution of pulses / 13.:
The length of resonant vibrations / 14.:
The place theory / 15.:
Memory storage and recovery of pitches / 16.:
Signalling direction / 18.:
Words and scents / 19.:
Bibliography
Index
List of figures
List of tables
Preface and acknowledgements
8.

図書

図書
Christopher J. Plack
出版情報: Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, c2005  xi, 267 p. ; 24 cm
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Preface
Introduction / 1:
Why Study Hearing? / 1.1:
How Is Hearing Investigated? / 1.2:
About This Book / 1.3:
The Nature of Sound / 2:
What Is Sound? / 2.1:
A Tone for Your Sins / 2.2:
The Spectrum / 2.3:
Complex Tones and Noise / 2.4:
Modulated Waveforms / 2.5:
Summary / 2.6:
Reading / 2.7:
Production, Propagation, and Processing / 3:
Sound Sources and Resonance / 3.1:
Propagation / 3.2:
Signal Processing / 3.3:
Digital Signals / 3.4:
A Journey Through the Auditory System / 3.5:
From Air to Ear / 4.1:
The Cochlea / 4.2:
Transduction / 4.3:
The Auditory Nerve / 4.4:
From Ear to Brain / 4.5:
Frequency Selectivity / 4.6:
The Importance of Frequency Selectivity / 5.1:
Frequency Selectivity on the Basilar Membrane / 5.2:
Neural Frequency Selectivity / 5.3:
Psychophysical Measurements / 5.4:
Loudness and Intensity Coding / 5.5:
The Dynamic Range of Hearing / 6.1:
Loudness / 6.2:
How Is Intensity Represented in the Auditory System? / 6.3:
Comparisons Across Frequency and Across Time / 6.4:
Pitch and Periodicity Coding / 6.5:
Pitch / 7.1:
How Is Periodicity Represented? / 7.2:
How Is Periodicity Extracted? / 7.3:
Hearing Over Time / 7.4:
Temporal Resolution / 8.1:
The Perception of Modulation / 8.2:
Combining Information Over Time / 8.3:
Spatial Hearing / 8.4:
Using Two Ears / 9.1:
Escape From the Cone of Confusion / 9.2:
Judging Distance / 9.3:
Reflections and the Perception of Space / 9.4:
The Auditory Scene / 9.5:
Principles of Perceptual Organization / 10.1:
Simultaneous Grouping / 10.2:
Sequential Grouping / 10.3:
Speech / 10.4:
Speech Production / 11.1:
Problems with the Speech Signal / 11.2:
Speech Perception / 11.3:
Concluding Remarks / 11.4:
In Praise of Diversity / 12.1:
What We Know / 12.2:
What We Don't Know / 12.3:
Glossary
References
Preface
Introduction / 1:
Why Study Hearing? / 1.1:
9.

図書

図書
Geoffrey A. Manley
出版情報: Berlin ; New York : Springer-Verlag, c1990  xii, 288 p. ; 25cm
シリーズ名: Zoophysiology ; v. 26
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10.

図書

図書
edited by G.V. Gersuni ; translated by Jerzy Rose
出版情報: New York : Academic Press, 1971  ix, 333 p. ; 24 cm
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