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図書

図書
Maurice W. Long
出版情報: Dedham, MA : Artech House, c1983  xxxv, 385 p. ; 24 cm
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Preface
Acknowledgments
Foreword
Remote Sensing by Radar / Chapter 1:
State of the Art
Overview / 1.1:
Radar Capabilities at End of World War II / 1.2:
Strip Maps and Side-looking Radar / 1.3:
Surface Effects and Emerging Techniques
Effects of Surface Characteristics / 1.4:
Emerging Techniques / 1.5:
Basic Concepts and Definitions / Chapter 2:
Radar Reflectivity
The Radar Equation for Free Space / 2.1:
Radar Cross Section of Targets / 2.2:
Normalized Radar Cross Section / 2.3:
Rayleigh Roughness Criterion / 2.4:
Coherence and Incoherence of a Scattered Field / 2.5:
Far Field of Radar Targets / 2.6:
Relationship between the Autocorrelation Function and the Power Density Spectrum / 2.7:
Fluctuation Statistics / 2.8:
The Earth and Its Effects on Radar
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refraction / 2.9:
The Effect of Interference on a Target / 2.10:
Nature of the Sea Surface and Wind Speed Statistics / 2.11:
Propagation Over the Horizon / 2.12:
Attenuation and Scattering by the Atmosphere / 2.13:
Polarization, Depolarization and Theories of Scattering / Chapter 3:
Polarization and Depolarization
Polarization Scattering Matrix / 3.1:
Relationships between Linear and Circular Polarizations / 3.2:
A Randomly Oriented Dipole / 3.3:
A Diplane Reflector / 3.4:
Depolarization Caused by an Ensemble of Randomly Oriented Dipoles / 3.5:
Theories for Radar Cross Section of Rough Surfaces
Simplified Models / 3.6:
Classical Interference Theory / 3.7:
The Tangent Plane Approximation / 3.8:
Very Rough Surfaces / 3.9:
The Facet Model / 3.10:
The Slightly Rough Planar Surface / 3.11:
Ripples on Water / 3.12:
Vegetation Model / 3.13:
Composite Surfaces / 3.14:
Doppler Spectra of Sea Echo / 3.15:
Effects of the Earth's Surface / Chapter 4:
Fundamental Concepts
Reflection Coefficient and Divergence Factor / 4.1:
Reflection Coefficient for a Flat, Smooth Earth / 4.3:
Effect of Terrain on Target Echo Strength / 4.4:
Echo from Targets That are Above a Flat, Smooth Earth
Range and Depression Angle Dependence for a Small Object above a Smooth Earth / 4.5:
Vertically Extensive Objects above a Smooth Earth / 4.6:
Propagation Factors for Circular, Horizontal and Vertical Polarizations above a Smooth Earth / 4.7:
Propagation Factors for a Cloud of Scatterers above a Smooth Earth / 4.8:
Effects of Surface Roughness on Forward Scattered Fields
Reflection Coefficient for Rough Surfaces / 4.9:
Shadowing / 4.10:
Depolarization / 4.11:
Echo from Targets That are Above a Physically Rough Earth
Variation of Echo Power with Range / 4.12:
Range at Which Idealized R[superscript -4] and R[superscript -8] Curves Intersect / 4.13:
Relative Cross Sections for Circular Polarizations / 4.14:
A Cloud of Scatterers / 4.15:
Effects of the Diffuse Component on Target Echo / 4.16:
Interference Effects on Echo from Land and Sea
Effects of Forward Scatter on [sigma][degree] for the Sea / 4.17:
Local Interference / 4.18:
Comparisons between the Classical Interference Effect and Local Interference / 4.19:
Echo Fluctuations / Chapter 5:
Ground Echo Fluctuations
Nature of Ground Echoes / 5.1:
Amplitude Distributions for Terrian / 5.2:
Frequency Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions for Land Echo / 5.3:
Visual Observations of Sea Echo
Characteristics Revealed by an A-Scope Display / 5.4:
Results from Fixed Range Sampling / 5.5:
Subjective Radar and Optical Comparison / 5.6:
Anomalies / 5.7:
Sea Echo Statistics and Spectra
Amplitude Distributions / 5.8:
Spectra Observed with Noncoherent Radar / 5.9:
Autocorrelation Functions / 5.10:
Frequency Spectra and Relationships with Sea Surface Mechanisms / 5.11:
Relative Power in Fast and Slow Fluctuations / 5.12:
Phase Coherent Doppler Spectra / 5.13:
Average and Median Cross Sections / Chapter 6:
Introduction
General Characteristics of [sigma][degree] / 6.1:
Differences between Average and Median Values / 6.2:
Planar Surfaces with Roughness Comparable to a Wavelength or Less / 6.3:
Very Small Incidence Angles / 6.4:
Near Vertical Incidence / 6.5:
Classical Interference Effect / 6.6:
Radar Cross Section for Land
Nature of [sigma][degree] for Land / 6.7:
Average [sigma][degree] for Various Terrains / 6.8:
Median [sigma][degree] for Various Terrains / 6.9:
Dependence on Incidence Angle and Polarization / 6.10:
Wavelength Dependence for Land / 6.11:
Discussion on [sigma][degree] for Land / 6.12:
Radar Cross Section for the Sea
Nature of [sigma][degree] for the Sea / 6.13:
Range Dependence at Small Incidence Angles / 6.14:
Dependence on Incidence Angle / 6.15:
Incidence Angle Dependence at Low Frequencies / 6.16:
Dependence of [sigma][degree] on Polarization / 6.17:
Dependence of [sigma][degree] on the Wind and Sea / 6.18:
Sea Echo Prediction / 6.19:
Wavelength Dependence for the Sea / 6.20:
Oil Slicks / 6.21:
Discussion on [sigma][degree] for the Sea / 6.22:
Interdependence of Polarization Characteristics / Chapter 7:
General Observations / 7.1:
Coherency, Statistical Independence, and Correlation / 7.2:
A Simplified Polarization Model for Rough Terrain / 7.3:
Use of the Polarization Model for the Moon / 7.4:
Echo from Land, Principally Trees
Amplitude Fluctuations / 7.5:
Interdependence of Amplitude and Phase of Orthogonally Polarized Echoes / 7.6:
Average and Median Value Data, and Depression Angle Dependence / 7.7:
Relative Magnitude of Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from Trees / 7.8:
Sea Echo
Fluctuations of Orthogonally Polarized Components / 7.9:
Averages and Medians for Linear Polarization / 7.10:
Interdependence of Averages and Medians for Linear and Circular Polarization / 7.11:
Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from the Sea / 7.12:
Appendices
Author Index
Subject Index
Preface
Acknowledgments
Foreword
2.

図書

図書
Maurice W. Long
出版情報: Lexington, Mass. : Lexington Books, c1975  xxvi, 366 p. ; 24 cm
所蔵情報: loading…
目次情報: 続きを見る
Preface
References
Acknowledgments
Remote Sensing by Radar / 1:
State of the Art / 1.1:
Overview / 1.1.1:
Radar Capabilities at the End of World War II / 1.1.2:
Strip Maps and Side-Looking Radar / 1.1.3:
Spaceborne Radar / 1.1.4:
Surface Effects and Emerging Techniques / 1.2:
Effects of Surface Characteristics / 1.2.1:
Modern Techniques for Sensing Surface Characteristics / 1.2.2:
Basic Concepts and Definitions / 2:
Radar Reflectivity / 2.1:
The Radar Equation for Free Space / 2.1.1:
Radar Cross Section of Targets / 2.1.2:
Normalized Radar Cross Section / 2.1.3:
Coherence and Incoherence of a Scattered Field / 2.1.4:
Rayleigh Roughness Criterion, Specular Reflection, and Scattering / 2.1.5:
Far Field of Radar Targets / 2.1.6:
Effects of Radar Frequency Changes / 2.1.7:
Echo Fluctuations / 2.1.8:
The Earth and Its Effects on Radar / 2.2:
Effects of the Earth's Curvature and Refraction / 2.2.1:
The Effect of Interference on a Target / 2.2.2:
Nature of the Sea Surface and Wind Speed Statistics / 2.2.3:
Propagation over the Horizon / 2.2.4:
Attenuation and Scattering by the Atmosphere / 2.2.5:
Polarization, Depolarization, and Theories of Scattering / 3:
Polarization and Depolarization / 3.1:
Polarization Scattering Matrix / 3.1.1:
Relationships Between Linear and Circular Polarizations / 3.1.2:
A Randomly Oriented Dipole / 3.1.3:
A Dihedral Reflector / 3.1.4:
Depolarization Caused by an Ensemble of Randomly Oriented Dipoles / 3.1.5:
Theories for Radar Cross Section of Rough Surfaces / 3.2:
Simple Models Including the Constant Gamma Model / 3.2.1:
Classical Interference Theory / 3.2.2:
The Tangent Plane Approximation / 3.2.3:
Very Rough Surfaces / 3.2.4:
The Facet Model / 3.2.5:
The Slightly Rough Planar Surface / 3.2.6:
Ripples on Water / 3.2.7:
Vegetation Model / 3.2.8:
Composite Surfaces / 3.2.9:
Doppler Spectra of Sea Echo / 3.2.10:
Effects of the Earth's Surface / 4:
Fundamental Concepts / 4.1:
Reflections from a Rough, Spherical Earth / 4.1.1:
Reflection Coefficient for a Flat, Smooth Earth / 4.1.3:
Effect of a Flat, Smooth Earth on Target Echo / 4.1.4:
Echo from Targets That Are Above a Flat, Smooth Earth / 4.2:
Range and Depression Angle Dependencies for a Small Object Above a Smooth Earth / 4.2.1:
Vertically Extensive Objects Above a Smooth Earth / 4.2.2:
Propagation Factors for Circular, Horizontal, and Vertical Polarizations Above a Smooth Earth / 4.2.3:
Propagation Factors for a Cloud of Scatterers Above a Smooth Earth / 4.2.4:
Effects of Surface Roughness on Forward-Scattered Fields / 4.3:
Reflection Coefficient for Rough Surfaces / 4.3.1:
Shadowing / 4.3.2:
Depolarization / 4.3.3:
Echo from Targets That Are Above a Physically Rough Earth / 4.4:
Variation of Echo Power with Range / 4.4.1:
Range at Which Idealized R[superscript -4] and R[superscript -8] Curves Intersect / 4.4.2:
Relative Cross Sections for Circular Polarizations / 4.4.3:
A Cloud of Scatterers / 4.4.4:
Effects of the Diffuse Component on Target Echo / 4.4.5:
Multipath Effects on Echo from Land and Sea / 4.5:
Effects of Multipath Interference / 4.5.1:
Multipath Interference and Shadowing / 4.5.2:
Echo Fluctuations and Spectra / 5:
Introduction / 5.1:
Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions / 5.1.1:
Amplitude Statistics / 5.1.2:
Ground Echo Fluctuations / 5.2:
Nature of Ground Echoes / 5.2.1:
Temporal Amplitude Distributions for Terrain / 5.2.2:
Spatial Amplitude Statistics / 5.2.3:
Noncoherent Spectra and Autocorrelation Functions of Land / 5.2.4:
Coherent Land Doppler Spectra / 5.2.5:
Lincoln Laboratory Spectral Model / 5.2.6:
Power in Fast and Slow Land Spectra / 5.2.7:
Bragg Spectra from Inland Water / 5.2.8:
Concluding Remarks on Ground Echo Fluctuations / 5.2.9:
Visual Observations of Sea Echo / 5.3:
Characteristics Revealed by an A-Scope Display / 5.3.1:
Results from Fixed Range Sampling / 5.3.2:
Subjective Radar/Optical Comparisons and Anomalies / 5.3.3:
Observations of Bishop and of Lewis and Olin / 5.3.4:
Sea Echo Statistics and Spectra / 5.4:
Amplitude Distributions / 5.4.1:
Spectra Observed with Noncoherent Radar / 5.4.2:
Autocorrelation Functions / 5.4.3:
Noncoherent Spectra and Relationships with Sea Surface Mechanisms / 5.4.4:
Relative Power in Fast and Slow Fluctuations / 5.4.5:
Phase Coherent Doppler Spectra / 5.4.6:
Super Events / 5.4.7:
Sea Spikes / 5.4.8:
Concluding Remarks on Sea Echo Fluctuations and Spectra / 5.4.9:
Space-Time Clutter Amplitude Statistics / 5.5:
Compound Distributions / 5.5.1:
The K-Distribution / 5.5.2:
Rayleigh Modulated by Weibull Statistics / 5.5.3:
Average and Median Cross Sections / 6:
General Characteristics of [sigma degree] / 6.1:
Differences Between Average and Median Values / 6.1.2:
Smooth Surfaces and Small Grazing Angles / 6.1.3:
Classical Interference Effect / 6.1.4:
Problems Associated with Measuring [sigma degree] / 6.1.5:
Radar Cross Section for Land / 6.2:
Nature of [sigma degree] for Land / 6.2.1:
Sample [sigma degree] Land Measurements / 6.2.2:
Terrain Within Near Vertical and Plateau Regions / 6.2.3:
Ulaby and Dobson Tables for Terrain / 6.2.4:
Terrain Within Plateau and Low Grazing Angle Regions / 6.2.5:
Terrain at Extremely Low Grazing Angles / 6.2.6:
Concluding Remarks on Average Land Echo / 6.2.7:
Radar Cross Section for the Sea / 6.3:
Nature of [sigma degree] for the Sea / 6.3.1:
Range Dependence at Small Grazing Angles / 6.3.2:
Dependence on Grazing Angle / 6.3.3:
Grazing Angle Dependence at Low Frequencies / 6.3.4:
Nathanson Sea Clutter Tables / 6.3.5:
Extremely Low Grazing Angles / 6.3.6:
Dependence of [sigma degree] on Polarization / 6.3.7:
Dependence of [sigma degree] on the Wind and Sea / 6.3.8:
GIT Sea Clutter Models / 6.3.9:
Wavelength Dependence for the Sea / 6.3.10:
A Two-Scatterer Sea Clutter Model / 6.3.11:
Oil Slicks and Rain on Water / 6.3.12:
Concluding Remarks on Average Sea Echo / 6.3.13:
Interdependence of Polarization Characteristics / 7:
General Observations / 7.1:
Coherency, Statistical Independence, and Correlation / 7.1.2:
A Simplified Polarization Model for Rough Terrain / 7.1.3:
Use of the Polarization Model for the Moon / 7.1.4:
Polarization Model with Different Propagation Factors / 7.1.5:
Echo from Land, Principally Trees / 7.2:
Amplitude Fluctuations / 7.2.1:
Interdependence of Amplitude and Phase of Orthogonally Polarized Echoes / 7.2.2:
Average and Median Value Data, and Depression Angle Dependence / 7.2.3:
Relative Magnitude of Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from Trees / 7.2.4:
Sea Echo / 7.3:
Fluctuations of Orthogonally Polarized Components / 7.3.1:
Averages and Medians for Linear Polarization / 7.3.2:
Interdependence of Averages and Medians for Linear and Circular Polarizations / 7.3.3:
Coherent and Incoherent Scattering from the Sea / 7.3.4:
Bistatic Land and Sea Clutter / 8:
Bistatic RCS / 8.1:
Effective Illuminated Area / 8.2:
Depolarization and Reduction in RCS / 8.3:
In-Plane ([phis] = 0 and 180[degree]) Clutter / 8.4:
The Barton Model / 8.5:
Ulaby et al. Indoor Measurements / 8.6:
Out-of-Plane, Small Grazing Angle Data / 8.7:
Statistical Parameters / Appendix:
Basics / A.1:
Probability Density Functions and Distributions / A.2:
Normal or Gaussian Distribution / A.2.1:
Rayleigh Distribution / A.2.2:
Ricean Distribution / A.2.3:
Lognormal Distribution / A.2.4:
Weibull Distribution / A.2.5:
Chi-Square, Gamma, and Weinstock Distributions / A.2.6:
Standard Deviation of 10 log [sigma] When [sigma] Is Rayleigh Power Distributed / A.3:
Relationship Between 10 log([characters not reproducible]igma]/[sigma subscript m]) and Its Variance When [sigma] Is Lognormal / A.4:
About the Author
Index
Preface
References
Acknowledgments
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